Copyright, Citation and Disclaimers

Copyright notice

Unless otherwise indicated, content on this website was created and/or authored by the University of California, Davis (UCD) for the Center for Plant Health Science and Technology (CPHST) under a cooperative agreement. This content may be freely distributed or copied as in the public domain. However, it is requested that in any subsequent use of this work CPHST and UCD be given appropriate acknowledgement (see below). All images and illustrations were created by Eli Sarnat, with the exception of Monomorium liliuokalanii specimen images which were taken by April Nobile and copyrighted by the California Academy of Sciences. Sources of information and text are mentioned in the Acknowledgements. Users must seek permission from the copyright owner(s) to use this material.

Suggested citation

Sarnat, E. M. (December 4, 2008) PIAkey: Identification guide to ants of the Pacific Islands, Edition 2.0, Lucid v. 3.4. USDA/APHIS/PPQ Center for Plant Health Science and Technology and University of California — Davis. [date you accessed site] <>



CPHST, and UCD do not assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information contained on this site.

External links

Some web pages on this site provide links to other Internet sites for the convenience of users. CPHST and UCD are not responsible for the availability or content of these external sites, nor do CPHST or UCD endorse or warrant the products, services, or information described or offered by these other Internet sites.

Edition 2.0 Site last updated - December 15, 2008

Key moved to key server, website moved to - May 2016