FWL: 6.5-8.5 mm (male); 7.5-11.5 mm (female)
Forewings are orangish brown to dark brown. A dark-brown median fascia is usually expressed in males while females are lighter with dark reticulations. The hindwings in both sexes are a distinctive bright orange and black, although many females lack black scaling on the hindwings. Males lack a forewing costal fold.
Males fly during the day or early evening and have been observed "swarming" around sources of the female pheromone, sometimes in large numbers. Males have been captured in pheromone traps using pheromones from several other species, including Clepsis spectrana, Pandemis heparana, and Adoxophyes orana. Individuals of Cacoecimorpha pronubana can be separated from most other tortricids by their bright orange and black hindwings.
Late instar larvae are green to dark green with conspicuous light green pinacula, white seate, and dark brown to black spiracles. The head is green to yellowish brown with a dark brown to black posterolateral dash and variable dark brown to black markings on the posterior margin. The prothoracic shield is brownish green to yellowish brown, usually with distinctive dark brown to black markings on the posterolateral corners and other small markings near the mid-dorsal line. Thoracic legs are brown. The anal shield is variably mottled with brown or black, and an anal comb is present with 6 teeth in most individuals.
Number of generations per year varies from two generations in northern regions to 4-6 continuously overlapping generations in southern regions, where adults may be present year round. In Washington, adults are present in May through the end of September.
Females deposit eggs in small groups. First instar larvae mine leaves or buds, while later instars roll or web leaves and terminals. Larvae may cause damage to fruit by webbing leaves to fruit or feeding between adjacent fruits. In areas where there are not continuous generations, overwintering occurs in the larval stage.
Cacoecimorpha pronubana larvae are highly polyphagous and have been recorded from more than 160 species of plants in 42 families. As its common name would suggest, this species is most often encountered as a pest of flowers in greenhouses, although the following partial host list includes many other economically important crops.
|Family ||Genus/species ||Common name|
|Apiaceae ||Aegopodium podagraria L. ||bishop's goutweed|
|Apocynaceae ||Neruim L. ||oleander|
|Apocynaceae ||Vinca L. ||periwinkle|
|Asteraceae ||Aster L. ||aster|
|Asteraceae ||Hieracium L. ||hawkweed|
|Brassicaceae ||Brassica oleracea L. ||cabbage|
|Brassicaceae ||Brassica L. ||mustard|
|Caryophyllaceae ||Dianthus L. ||pink|
|Celastraceae ||Euonymus japonicus Thunb. ||Japanese spindletree|
|Celastraceae ||Euonymus L. ||spindletree|
|Cupressaceae ||Chamaecyparis pistifera (Siebold & Zucc.) Endl. |
|Cupressaceae ||Cupressocyparis leylandii (Dallim. & A.B. Jacks.) Dallim. |
|Cupressaceae ||Juniperus scopulorum Sarg. ||Rocky Mountain juniper|
|Elaeagnaceae ||Hippophae rhamnoides L. ||seaberry|
|Ericaceae ||Arbutus L. ||madrone|
|Ericaceae ||Rhododendron L. ||rhododendron|
|Ericaceae ||Vaccinium corymbosum L. ||highbush blueberry|
|Ericaceae ||Vaccinium L. ||blueberry|
|Euphorbiaceae ||Euphorbia amygdaloides L. ||wood spurge|
|Fabaceae ||Robinia pseudoacacia L. ||black locust|
|Fabaceae ||Trifolium L. ||clover|
|Fabaceae ||Vicia faba L. ||horsebean|
|Geraniaceae ||Pelargonium L'Her. ex Aiton ||geranium|
|Lauraceae ||Laurus nobilis L. ||sweet bay|
|Lauraceae ||Persea americana Mill. ||avocado|
|Liliaceae ||Narcissus L. ||daffodil|
|Oleaceae ||Ligustrum L. ||privet|
|Oleaceae ||Olea europaea L. ||olive|
|Onagraceae ||Fuchsia L. ||fuchsia|
|Pinaceae ||Pinus halepensis Mill. ||aleppo pine|
|Polygonaceae ||Rumex crispus L. ||curly dock|
|Punicaceae ||Punica granatum L. ||pomegranate|
|Rosaceae ||Fragaria L. ||strawberry|
|Rosaceae ||Malus Mill. ||apple|
|Rosaceae ||Prunus L. ||plum|
|Rosaceae ||Prunus L. ||cherry|
|Rosaceae ||Prunus persica (L.) Batsch ||peach|
|Rosaceae ||Pyrus L. ||pear|
|Rosaceae ||Rosa L. ||rose|
|Rutaceae ||Citrus reticulata Blanco ||tangerine|
|Rutaceae ||Citrus L. ||citrus|
|Solanaceae ||Capsicum L. ||pepper|
|Solanaceae ||Solanum lycopersicum L. var. lycopersicum ||garden tomato|
|Tamaricaceae ||Tamarix L. ||tamarisk|
|Thymelaeceae ||Daphne L. ||daphne|
|Vitaceae ||Vitis L. ||grape|
Cacoecimorpha pronubana is native to Northern Africa and it is widely distributed across Western Europe to Asia Minor. It has been introduced into South Africa and North America, where it is present in the Pacific Northwest (Oregon and Washington). In early 2011 this species was discovered in California feeding on Daphne odora (winter daphne). In 2013 an infestation of C. pronubana on Daphne was discovered at the Denver Zoo in Denver, Colorado.
Bradley, J. D., W. G. Tremewan and A. Smith. 1973. British Tortricoid Moths - Cochylidae and Tortricidae: Tortricinae. The Ray Society, London, England.
Razowski, J. 2002. Tortricidae of Europe, Vol. 1, Tortricinae and Chlidanotinae. Frantisek Slamka, Slovakia. 247 pp.
Van de Vrie, M. 1991. Tortricids in ornamental crops in greenhouses, pp. 515-539. In: L. P. S. van der Geest, H. H. Evenhuis (eds.), Tortricid pests, their biology, natural enemies and control. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Wyoski, M. and Y. Izhar. 1976. The carnation leaf-roller Cacoecimorpha (Cacoecia) pronubana Huebner (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) on avocado trees in Israel. California Avocado Society Yearbook. 60: 92-95.