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aedeagus: the male intromittent organ (penis); see "phallus"

anal angle: on the hindwing, the angle nearest the end of the abdomen when the wings are expanded

anal comb: a toothed structure on the last abdominal segment used to eject frass away from the feeding larva; also termed "anal fork"

anal margin: see anal angle

anal shield: a sclerotized plate on the dorsal surface of the last abdominal segment (in larvae)

anellus: a variably cup-shaped sclerotized sheet surrounding the base of the aedeagus

anterior: before, to the front, toward the head

antrum: in the female genitalia; a funnellike sclerotization anterior to the ostium

apex: the point furthest removed from the base or at the end of the costal area

apophyses: apodemal rods used to extend the ovipositor; divided into the apophyses anteriores and apophyses posteriores


basal fascia: the fascia (transverse band) at the base of the forewing

bifid: cleft, forked, divided into two parts

bursa copulatrix: the female genital chamber that is divided into the ductus bursae and the corpus bursae


capitulum: in reference to the female signum; a knoblike projection

caulis: a rodlike plate connecting the juxta and anellus

cestum: a long, bandlike sclerotization of the wall of the ductus bursae

chaetosema: a small sensory organ located above the compound eye in some families of Lepidoptera (in adults)

chaetotaxy: the arrangement of setae (in reference to Lepidoptera larvae), often depicted on a "setal map"

coremata: specialized tufts of sex scales, usually found in the male (singular: corema)

cornuti: spines used to anchor the male vesica in the female bursa during copulation

cornutus: singular of "cornuti"

corpus bursae: a dilated membranous sac at the anterior end of the bursa copulatrix

costa: the anterior margin of each wing

costal margin: see costa

costal spot: a patch of contrasting scales on the costa, usually a remnant of the postmedian or preterminal fascia

costal strigulae: small, usually pale, semirectangular marks along the costa

crochets: hooked spines on the prolegs of lepidopterous larvae

cucullus: the distal portion of the male valva


dash: a short, sharp, black line on the forewing

distal: farthest from body, distant from point of attachment

dorsal: upper, to the top, on the back

dorsal strigulae: semirectangular pale marks or lines extending from the dorsal margin; usually expressed in the Grapholitini

dorsum: the lower or inner margin of the wing; the trailing edge of the forewing based on its position when the moth is in its resting posture

ductus bursae: a membranous tube connecting the ostium bursae to the corpus bursae


falcate: narrow, curved and pointed; sickle-shaped; shaped like a bird's beak

fascia: a dark transverse band on the forewing

fasciae: plural of "fascia"

filiform: threadlike, long and slender with uniform cross section

forewing costal fold: a flap or fold at the base of the forewing that contains specialized sex scales

frenulum: a single spine (males) or multiple spines (females) that project anteriorly from the base of the hindwing; used to couple the hindwings to the forewings in flight by means of a retinaculum on the forewing

frons: the upper anterior portion of the head (in adults)

FWL: forewing length; the distance from the base of the forewing to the apex, including fringe


gnathos: a narrow bandlike structure that joins the posterolateral edges of the tegumen and supports the anal tube


inner margin: see dorsum


labial palpi: a pair of sensory appendages that project from the lower part of the head; usually covered in scales and three-segmented

lateral: to the side

lustrous: bright, shining, metallic


maculation: markings, pattern of spots, bands, blotches, streaks, etc.; wing markings

maxillary palpi: a pair of segmented appendages extending from the lower part of the head; usually smaller than the labial palpi and may be reduced or absent in some families

medial: to the middle, center, toward center line

median fascia: the fascia (transverse band) in the middle of the forewing, delimited by costal strigulae pairs 4 and 5

mesothorax: the middle segment of the thorax

metathorax: the most posterior thoracic segment

mottled: having spots or blotches of color


ocelli: adult head - a simple insect "eye" located dorsal to the compound eye; plural of ocellus

ocellus: forewing pattern element - an ovoid region anterior to the tornus; adult head - a simple insect "eye" located dorsal to the compound eye

ostium: see ostium bursae

ostium bursae: the female copulatory orifice; the entrance to the bursa copulatrix


papillae anales: the female ovipositor lobes

pecten: a comblike or rakelike structure located on the first antennal segment (in adults)

pectinate: with branches or processes like the teeth of a comb

phallus: the male intromittent organ (penis); see "aedeagus"

pinacula: flattened sclerotized plates on a caterpillar that bear the setae

pinaculum: singular of "pinacula"

porrect: extending forward horizontally

posterad: towards the posterior

posterior: after, to the rear, toward anal end

posterolateral: towards the rear and side; posterior and lateral

postmedian fascia: the fascia (transverse band) beyond the middle of the forewing, delimited by costal strigulae pairs 6 and 7

preterminal fascia: the fascia (transverse band) near the apex of the forewing, delimited by costal strigulae pairs 8 and 9

prothoracic shield: a sclerotized plate on the dorsal surface of the prothorax

prothorax: the most anterior thoracic segment

proximal: toward the base, nearest the body or point of attachment


reticulations: covered with a network of lines or mesh; in reference to wing pattern, usually thin horizontal lines

retinaculum: a hook or series of bristles on the underside of the forewing used to engage the frenulum to couple the front and hind wings


sacculus: the ventral margin of the male valva

saddle: in reference to the D2 pinacula on larval segment A9; both setae are on a single, fused pinaculum in the mid-dorsal region of the segment

scape: the basal segment of an insect antenna

sclerotized: hardened; usually in reference to larval structures or adult genitalia

scobinate: rasplike

setose: covered with setae

signa: plural of "signum"

signum: a sclerotized projection or patch on the interior of the corpus bursae

sinuate: a curved or wavy margin

socii: a pair of lightly sclerotized setose lobes

spatulate: spoonlike, narrow basally and enlarged and rounded apically

sterigma: the sclerotized region surrounding the female ostium bursae

subbasal fascia: the fascia (transverse band) near the base of the forewing, delimited by costal strigulae pairs 2 and 3


tegumen: dorsal section of the transverse ring in male genitalia; often heavily sclerotized

termen: the outer edge of the forewing

tornus: the junction of the termen and dorsum of the wing

tympanum: a membrane-covered cavity that serves as a hearing organ (not present in Tortricidae)


uncus: a sclerotized process which is fused to the posterodorsal margin of tergum IX


valva: an appendage flanking the intromittent organ that is used to clasp the female during copulation

valvae: plural of "valva"

ventral: lower, to the bottom, on the under side

vinculum: ventral section of the transverse ring in male genitalia

(Click on a glossary item for an illustration)

     Tortricids of Agricultural Importance by Todd M. Gilligan and Marc E. Epstein
     Interactive Keys developed in Lucid 3.5. Last updated August 2014.