FWL: 7.0-9.5 mm (male); 9.0-12.0 mm (female)
Adults are brown with fasciate markings and gray and white hindwings. Pandemis limitata is similar to Pandemis pyrusana and Pandemis canadana, and the three species are not easily separated. A combination of geographic distribution and wing color can assist in identification (see below). In the Pacific Northwest and central Rocky Mountains all three species are present and a reliable species-level identification is difficult or impossible.
Six species of Pandemis occur in the Nearctic. Four, P. canadana, P. lamprosana, P. limitata, and P. pyrusana, are native, while two, P. cerasana and P. heparana, have been introduced from the Palearctic. All species treated here have a straw (yellow) to brown forewing with brown to dark-brown markings consisting of a patch on the costa below the apex, a median band that extends from costa to dorsum, and a basal band. The two bands (or fasciae) may be lined with light or dark scales in some individuals, creating the appearance of three lines running vertically across the wing. Males have a distinctive notch at the base of the antennae and modified dark scales on the ventral surface of abdominal segments 2-3 (this character is absent in P. lamprosana and P. heparana). Males lack a forewing costal fold.
Species identification within the group is difficult. Pandemis lamprosana, P. cerasana, and P. heparana, can be identified by wing color and male genitalia. The other three species, P. canadana, P. limitata, and P. pyrusana, exhibit variable wing patterns, share identical genitalia, and cannot be reliably separated where their distributions overlap. The following table lists a combination of wing color and geographic distribution that can be used to identify many Pandemis individuals collected in the U.S.
|Pandemis species ||Forewing color ||Hindwing color ||Sex scales on male 2nd abd. segment ||Distribution|
|canadana ||medium to dark brown ||all gray ||present ||Maine, Colorado, Wyoming, Southern Canada|
|cerasana ||straw to light brown ||grayish brown ||present ||Pacific Northwest, British Columbia; Europe and Asia|
|heparana ||medium brown ||light to medium grayish brown ||absent ||Pacific Northwest, British Columbia; Europe and Asia|
|lamprosana ||tan to light brown ||white to light gray ||absent ||Northeastern U.S., southern Quebec and Ontario|
|limitata ||straw to medium brown ||gray and white ||present || Eastern U.S. and southern Canada; generally absent in the U.S. west of the Rocky Mtns.|
|pyrusana ||straw to medium brown ||all white ||present ||Rocky Mtns. west to California, southern Alberta and British Columbia|
Late instar larvae are approximately 20 mm in length and are entirely green and unmarked with moderately large pinacula and long setae. Earlier instars may have a dark lateral mark on each side of the prothoracic shield. A well developed anal comb is present with 6-8 teeth.
MacKay (1962) examined several species of Nearctic Pandemis and could find no species-specific larval characters. Diagnostic characters for the genus include: SD2 on A1-8 on same pinaculum as SD1; L1 and L2 anterior to spiracle on A2-8; SV group on A1,2,7,8,9 usually 3:3:3:2:2; D2s on A8 as far apart as D1s; D1 on A9 on its own pinaculum; anal setae very long; anal comb with 6-8 teeth.
Pandemis limitata completes one or two generations over most of its range. Adults are present June through August.
Females lay eggs on the upper surface of leaves in large masses that contain between 60-182 eggs. Larvae feed on terminal leaf growth and occasionally on fruit. Those of the first generation complete development in late July or early August. Pupation occurs in the final larval feeding site and adults emerge in approximately 10 days. Third instar larvae of the second generation construct a hibernaculum in a protected site on small diameter growth and overwinter until the following spring, when they resume feeding on leaves and young fruits.
Larvae of Pandemis limitata have been recorded feeding on a variety of deciduous woody plants. This species is considered a minor pest of apple in some regions.
|Family ||Genus/species ||Common name|
|Aceraceae ||Acer negundo L. ||boxelder|
|Aceraceae ||Acer saccharinum L. ||silver maple|
|Betulaceae ||Alnus incana (L.) Moench ||gray alder|
|Betulaceae ||Alnus Mill. ||alder|
|Betulaceae ||Alnus rubra Bong. ||red alder|
|Betulaceae ||Betula L. ||birch|
|Betulaceae ||Betula papyrifera Marshall ||paper birch|
|Betulaceae ||Corylus americana Walter ||American hazelnut|
|Betulaceae ||Corylus L. ||hazelnut|
|Caprifoliaceae ||Viburnum L. ||viburnum|
|Celastraceae ||Euonymus atropurpureus Jacq. ||burningbush|
|Cornaceae ||Cornus racemosa Lam. ||gray dogwood|
|Ericaceae ||Vaccinium L. ||blueberry|
|Fabaceae ||Amorpha fruticosa L. ||desert false indigo|
|Fabaceae ||Trifolium L. ||clover|
|Fagaceae ||Castanea Mill. ||chestnut|
|Fagaceae ||Quercus alba L. ||white oak|
|Fagaceae ||Quercus L. ||oak|
|Fagaceae ||Quercus macrocarpa Michx. ||bur oak|
|Myricaceae ||Myrica gale L. ||sweetgale|
|Osmundaceae ||Osmunda L. ||osmunda|
|Rosaceae ||Malus domestica Borkh. ||apple|
|Rosaceae ||Malus Mill. ||apple|
|Rosaceae ||Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. ||European crab apple|
|Rosaceae ||Prunus avium (L.) L. ||sweet cherry|
|Rosaceae ||Prunus L. |
|Rosaceae ||Prunus virginiana L. ||chokecherry|
|Rosaceae ||Sorbus L. ||mountain ash|
|Salicaceae ||Populus alba L. ||white poplar|
|Salicaceae ||Populus balsamifera L. ||balsam poplar|
|Salicaceae ||Populus L. ||cottonwood|
|Salicaceae ||Populus tremuloides Michx. ||quaking aspen|
|Salicaceae ||Salix L. ||willow|
|Tiliaceae ||Tilia americana L. ||American basswood|
|Ulmaceae ||Ulmus americana L. ||American elm|
|Ulmaceae ||Ulmus L. ||elm|
|Ulmaceae ||Ulmus rubra Muhl. ||slippery elm|
Pandemis limitata ranges in southern Canada from Nova Scotia to British Columbia and in the U.S. from the East Coast west to the Rocky Mountains and Arizona. It is generally absent in the U.S. west of the Rockies. There is a single record from Durango, Mexico.
DeLury N. C., G. J. R. Judd and M. G. T. Gardiner. 2006. Attraction of male Pandemis limitata (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to natural and synthetic pheromone sources: importance for assessing communication disruption. The Canadian Entomologist. 138: 697-711.
Dombroskie, J. J. 2011. Aspects of archipine evolution (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). University of Alberta, Department of Biological Sciences. Ph.D. dissertation. 488 pp.
Freeman, T. N. 1958. The Archipinae of North America (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). The Canadian Entomologist. 90 (suppl. 7). 89 pp.
MacKay, M. R. 1962. Larvae of the North American Tortricinae (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). The Canadian Entomologist Supplement 28: 1-182.
Mutuura, A. 1980. Two Pandemis species introduced into British Columbia, with a comparison of native North American species (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). The Canadian Entomologist. 112: 549-554.