FWL: 4.5-7.0 mm
Adults are dark brown with lighter, metallic, transverse markings. Hindwings are brown. Males lack a forewing costal fold.
Cydia strobilella is similar to other Palearctic pine-feeding Cydia, including C. conicolana, C. cosmophorana, and C. pactolana. A genitalic dissection can be used to confirm identity.
Larvae are pale yellow to white with a light or dark-brown head. The prothoracic shield is light brown with darker posterolateral shading.
In North America, larvae of Cydia strobilella are intercepted on spruce cones imported from Europe.
Cydia strobilella completes 1-2 annual generations. In Europe, a single generation is most common and adults are present April to May in the South and May to June in the North. In North America, two generations are common and adults are present in April and May and again in August and September. Adults are active during the afternoon.
Females lay eggs under the scales of young cones. Early instar larvae feed on the scales, later moving to the seeds. Mid- to late instars tunnel inside the cone and form a double, branched mine. Pupation occurs in the cone. Each cone may support several larvae.
Larvae are a pest of spruce and have been recorded feeding on various other Pinaceae.
|Family ||Genus/species ||Common name|
|Pinaceae ||Abies alba Mill. ||silver fir|
|Pinaceae ||Abies Mill. ||fir|
|Pinaceae ||Picea A. Dietr. ||spruce|
|Pinaceae ||Picea abies (L.) Karst. ||Norway spruce|
|Pinaceae ||Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm. ||Engelmann spruce|
|Pinaceae ||Picea glauca (Moench) Voss ||white spruce|
|Pinaceae ||Picea jezoensis (Siebold & Zucc.) Carriere |
|Pinaceae ||Picea koyamae Shiras. |
|Pinaceae ||Picea mariana (Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb. ||black spruce|
|Pinaceae ||Picea obovata Ledeb. |
|Pinaceae ||Picea omorika (Pancic) Purk. |
|Pinaceae ||Picea pungens Engelm. ||blue spruce|
|Pinaceae ||Picea rubens Sarg. ||red spruce|
|Pinaceae ||Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carriere ||Sitka spruce|
|Pinaceae ||Pinus pungens Lamb. ||Table Mountain pine|
|Pinaceae ||Pinus sylvestris L. ||Scots pine|
Cydia strobilella occurs from Europe to China and Japan. It is also present in the northern United States and Canada.
Bradley, J. D., W. G. Tremewan and A. Smith. 1979. British Tortricoid Moths - Tortricidae: Olethreutinae. The Ray Society, London, England. 336 pp.
Brockerhoff, E. G. and M. Kenis. 1996. Parasitoids associated with Cydia stobilella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Europe, and considerations for their use for biological control in North America. Biological Control. 6: 202-214.
Heinrich, C. 1926. Revision of the North American moths of the subfamilies Laspeyresiinae and Olethreutinae. Bulletin of the U.S. National Museum. 132: 1-216.
Razowski, J. 2003. Tortricidae of Europe, Vol. 2, Olethreutinae. Frantisek Slamka, Slovakia. 301 pp.
Fig. 5: Edward H. Holsten, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
Fig. 6: James K. Lindsey