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CAPS Secondary Target - Adult
Port Interception Target - Larva

Cryptophlebia ombrodelta (Lower) (Tortricidae: Olethreutinae: Grapholitini)

Common names: litchi fruit moth, macadamia nut borer

Synonyms: carpophaga (Cryptophlebia)

Fig. 1: Male

Fig. 1: Male

Fig. 2: Male

Fig. 2: Male

Fig. 3: Female

Fig. 3: Female

Fig. 4: Male genitalia

Fig. 4: Male genitalia

Fig. 5: Female genitalia

Fig. 5: Female genitalia

Fig. 6: Female sterigma

Fig. 6: Female sterigma

Adult Recognition

FWL: 7.0-11.5 mm

Adults are brown to reddish brown with a dark-brown pretornal spot that is more pronounced in females. Males have sex scales on the hindwing, hind tibia, and abdomen. Male genitalia are characterized by swollen valvae with three large spines on the cucullus. Female genitalia are characterized by a narrow, V-shaped sterigma that is separate from the posterior margin of sternum VII and two signa in the corpus bursae. Males lack a forewing costal fold.

Adults of most Cryptophlebia species are superficially similar and are often mixed in museum collections. A genitalic dissection is usually necessary to confirm identity. The three species treated here, C. illepida, C. ombrodelta, and C. peltastica, can be separated by genitalic characters and geographic distribution, as outlined in the following table:

Cryptophlebia species Male valva Female sterigma Distribution
illepida Two large spines, multiple rows of marginal spines Wide, V-shaped Hawaii
ombrodelta Three large spines Narrow, V-shaped, separate Australia, Guam, Japan, India, Southeast Asia, Hawaii (int.)
peltastica Three large spines, margin densely setose Narrow, ovate, deeply inset Africa, Seychelles, Mauritius, Guam (int.)

Both C. illepida and C. ombrodelta occur in Hawaii; the former is assumed to be native as it is has not been found in any other locality, and the latter has been introduced. In addition to the genitalic differences listed above, adults of these two species can be separated by a character on the male hind tibia: in C. ombrodelta there is an ovate bare patch that is absent in C. illepida.

Larval Morphology

Late instar larvae are approximately 13-20 mm long. The abdomen is yellowish white, turning reddish in the final instar. Pinacula are large and darker than body color in most species; however, pinacula are not heavily sclerotized and may be difficult to observe in preserved individuals. The head and prothoracic shield are black or dark brown in early instars, turning pale or yellowish brown in the final instar. An anal comb is usually absent, although some individuals may have a rudimentary anal comb with 4-6 small teeth (especially common in C. ombrodelta).

Other diagnostic features of Cryptophlebia larvae include: T1 prespiracular pinaculum extends below the spiracle; SV counts on A1,2,7,8,9 as 3:3:2(3):2(1):1; SV seta on A8 and A9 bisetose; spiracle on A8 near posterior margin of segment and displaced dorsally; L group on A9 usually trisetose (occasionally bisetose); D1 and SD1 setae on same pinaculum on A9; and D2 setae on shared saddle pinaculum on A9.


The biology of C. ombrodelta is similar to that of C. illepida. Development is continuous and adults are present year-round.

Females lay eggs on the fruits or pods of the host plant. Larvae bore into the fruit or pod and feed on the seeds. Pupation occurs in the fruit or pod or in the ground.

Host plants

Cryptophlebia ombrodelta is an important pest of macadamia, litchi, and longan fruit in Asia, Australia, and Hawaii. Larvae are moderately polyphagous and have been recorded feeding on plants in several families.

Family Genus/species Common name
Arecaceae Cocos nucifera L. coconut palm
Euphorbiaceae Nephelium lappaceum L. rambutan
Fabaceae Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd. sweet acacia
Fabaceae Acacia Mill. acacia
Fabaceae Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile gum arabic tree
Fabaceae Adenanthera pavonina L. red beadtree
Fabaceae Bauhinia hirsuta Weinm. orchid tree
Fabaceae Bauhinia L. bauhinia
Fabaceae Bauhinia malabarica Roxb. orchid tree
Fabaceae Bauhinia purpurea L. butterfly tree
Fabaceae Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston shoofly
Fabaceae Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) Sw. pride-of-Barbados
Fabaceae Caesalpinia sappan L. sappanwood
Fabaceae Cassia fistula L. golden shower
Fabaceae Cassia javanica L. X fistula L. rainbow shower
Fabaceae Cassia L. cassia
Fabaceae Delonix Raf. delonix
Fabaceae Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook.) Raf. royal poinciana
Fabaceae Glycine max (L.) Merr. soybean
Fabaceae Indigofera suffruticosa Mill. anil de pasto
Fabaceae Parkinsonia aculeata L. Jerusalem thorn
Fabaceae Phaseolus L. bean
Fabaceae Phaseolus lunatus L. sieva bean
Fabaceae Phaseolus vulgaris L. kidney bean
Fabaceae Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. monkeypod
Fabaceae Poinciana L.
Fabaceae Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. mesquite
Fabaceae Prosopis pallida (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Kunth kiawe
Fabaceae Senna alata (L.) Roxb. emperor's candlesticks
Fabaceae Senna bicapsularis (L.) Roxb. Christmasbush
Fabaceae Senna Mill. senna
Fabaceae Senna occidentalis (L.) Link septicweed
Fabaceae Senna septemtrionalis (Viv.) H. Irwin & Barneby arsenic bush
Fabaceae Senna sophera (L.) Roxb. algarrobilla
Fabaceae Sesbania bispinosa (Jaq.) W. Wight dunchi fiber
Fabaceae Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Poir. vegetable hummingbird
Fabaceae Sesbania Scop. riverhemp
Fabaceae Tamarindus indica L. tamarind
Fabaceae [unspecified]
Oxalidaceae Averrhoa carambola L. carambola
Polygonaceae Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. seagrape
Proteaceae Buckinghamia celsissima F. Muell.
Proteaceae Macadamia F. Muell. macadamia
Rutaceae Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. Serr. Indian bael
Rutaceae Citrus L. citrus
Rutaceae Citrus X sinensis (L.) Osbeck (pro sp.) [maxima X reticulata] sweet orange
Rutaceae Limonia L. limonia
Rutaceae Limonium acidissima L. Indian woodapple
Rutaceae [unspecified]
Sapindaceae Cupaniopsis anacardioides (A. Rich.) Radlk. carrotwood
Sapindaceae Dimocarpus longan Lour. longan
Sapindaceae Filicium decipiens Thwaites
Sapindaceae Litchi chinensis Sonn. [excluded] lychee
Sapindaceae [unspecified]


Cryptophlebia ombrodelta is recorded from Australia, Guam, India, Japan, Java, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, and Thailand. It has been introduced into Hawaii.


Bradley, J. D. 1953. Some important species of the genus Cryptophlebia Walsingham, 1899, with descriptions of three new species (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research. 43: 679-689.

Horak, M. 2006. Olethreutine moths of Australia (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Monographs on Australian Lepidoptera, Vol. 10. 522 pp.

Jones, V. P. 1994. Feeding by Cryptophlebia illepida and C. ombrodelta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on macadamia nut abortion. Journal of Economic Entomology. 87: 781-786.

Jones, V. P. 1995. Sampling plans for Cryptophlebia spp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) attacking macadamia and litchi in Hawaii. Journal of Economic Entomology. 88: 1337-1342.

Komai, F. 1999. A taxonomic review of the genus Grapholita and allied genera (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in the Palaearctic region. Entomologica Scandinavica Supplement 55. 226 pp.

Zimmerman, E. C. 1978. Insects of Hawaii, Volume 9, Microlepidoptera, Part 1. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii, 881 pp.

Tortricids of Agricultural Importance by Todd M. Gilligan and Marc E. Epstein
Interactive Keys developed in Lucid 3.5. Last updated August 2014.