FWL: 7.5-9.5 mm (male); 9.0-12.0 mm (female)
Forewing color varies from bright orange to yellow, often with faint purplish markings. The hindwing is yellow or yellowish brown. Males have a forewing costal fold.
Archips rileyana is very similar to A. cerasivorana, both in appearance and larval habits. Freeman (1958) considered A. rileyana a subspecies of A. cerasivorana, but Obraztsov (1959) demonstrated that both adults and larvae of the two species can be separated. Archips cerasivorana is characterized by an uncus with parallel sides in the male, a large blunt signum in the female, and smaller, sometimes body-colored pinacula on the larval abdomen. Archips rileyana is characterized by a spatulate uncus in the male, a moderate pointed signum in the female, and very large, conspicuous, black pinacula on the larval abdomen.
Last instar larvae are 19-26 mm in length with a yellow to dark yellowish-green abdomen. The head, prothoracic shield, thoracic legs, and anal shield are dark brown to black. An anal comb is absent.
Larvae of Archips rileyana are very similar to those of A. cerasivorana. Larvae of A. rileyana have very large, conspicuous, black pinacula, whereas those of A. cerasivorana are smaller, and range from body-colored to black.
Archips cerasivorana completes one generation per year. Adults are present in July and August.
Females lay eggs in masses of 25-200 eggs at the base of shoots, often near the ground. Eggs overwinter and first instar larvae hatch in May. Unlike many tortricids, the larvae are social, and feeding occurs in silken nests on terminals of the host plants. A typical nest may contain 30-200 larvae and reach up to 30 inches in diameter. The nest is expanded when the colony needs additional food and feeding always occurs under the protection of the nest. Early stages skeletonize leaves while later stages consume entire leaves. Pupation occurs in chambers constructed in the nest from frass and silk.
Archips cerasivorana is primarily associated with cherry and its most common host is Prunus virginiana (chokecherry). During outbreak conditions the larvae may utilize other hosts, many of which are listed below.
|Family ||Genus/species ||Common name|
|Aceraceae ||Acer saccharinum L. ||silver maple|
|Betulaceae ||Alnus incana (L.) Moench ||gray alder|
|Betulaceae ||Betula papyrifera Marshall ||paper birch|
|Betulaceae ||Corylus L. ||hazelnut|
|Fagaceae ||Quercus macrocarpa Michx. ||bur oak|
|Fagaceae ||Quercus palustris Munchh. ||pin oak|
|Oleaceae ||Fraxinus L. ||ash|
|Pinaceae ||Pinus sylvestris L. ||Scots pine|
|Rosaceae ||Amelanchier Medik. ||serviceberry|
|Rosaceae ||Crataegus L. ||hawthorn|
|Rosaceae ||Prunus avium (L.) L. ||sweet cherry|
|Rosaceae ||Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hook.) D. Dietr. ||bitter cherry|
|Rosaceae ||Prunus ilicifolia (Nutt. ex Hook. & Arn.) D. Dietr. ||hollyleaf cherry|
|Rosaceae ||Prunus L. |
|Rosaceae ||Prunus pensylvanica L. f. ||pin cherry|
|Rosaceae ||Prunus pumila L. ||sandcherry|
|Rosaceae ||Prunus serotina Ehrh. ||black cherry|
|Rosaceae ||Prunus virginiana L. ||chokecherry|
|Rosaceae ||Prunus virginiana L. var. demissa (Nutt.) Torr. ||western chokecherry|
|Rosaceae ||Rosa L. ||rose|
|Salicaceae ||Populus balsamifera L. ||balsam poplar|
|Salicaceae ||Populus L. ||cottonwood|
|Salicaceae ||Populus tremuloides Michx. ||quaking aspen|
|Salicaceae ||Salix L. ||willow|
|Tiliaceae ||Tilia americana L. ||American basswood|
Archips cerasivorana occurs across southern Canada and the northern half of the United States, although there are records from some southern States.
Chapman, P. J. and S. E. Lienk. 1971. Tortricid fauna of apple in New York (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae); including an account of apple's occurrence in the state, especially as a naturalized plant. Spec. Publ. Geneva, NY: New York State Agricultural Experiment Station. 122 pp.
Freeman, T. N. 1958. The Archipinae of North America (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). The Canadian Entomologist Supplement 7 (Vol. 90): 1-89.
Obraztsov, N. S. 1959. Characters separating Archips rileyanus and cerasivoranus as two species (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Entomological News. 70: 263-267.
Powell, J. A. and P. A. Opler. 2009. Moths of western North America. University of California Press, Berkeley. 369 pp.
Figs. 6-9: Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org