FWL: 8.0-9.5 mm
Forewing pattern is similar to Adoxophyes orana and other Asian Adoxophyes, and the various species cannot be separated based solely on wing pattern. Although tea pests are not a top concern for U.S. agriculture, this species is treated here as part of the A. orana complex in Asia. As we could not confirm the identity of any suspect A. honmai specimens, adults and genitalia of A. orana are illustrated as representatives of the group.
Genitalia of A. honmai are similar to those of other Adoxophyes. According to Yasuda (1998), male A. honmai can be distinguished from A. orana based on the following combination of characters: uncus dorsally truncate and narrow; apical membranous projection on uncus small and shrunken; brachiola (membranous apical projection off valva) "finger-shaped;" and transtilla lobes not touching at the proximal ends. Females are distinguished from A. orana by a smaller bursa copulatrix and longer ductus bursae.
Adoxophyes honmai is similar to other species of Adoxophyes in Asia which include: A. dubia (Japan), A. orana beijingensis (China), A. orana fasciata (Japan), A. orana orana (China, Korea, and Europe), and A. privatana (China). All are difficult to separate and molecular diagnostics may be required for a positive identification (see Lee et al. 2005).
Similar to other Adoxophyes, late instar larvae vary in body color and are approximately 20 mm in length. Head and prothoracic shield are black in early instars and become brown to yellowish brown in later instars. Legs are unmarked.
Sakamaki and Hayakawa (2004) attempted to separate the immature stages of the three Japanese species of Adoxophyes using morphology but the differences they found are too minor to be diagnostic.
Adoxophyes honmai completes 4-5 generations per year in Japan. Adults are present April through June, June and July, July and August, and August through November. Adults are capable of long dispersal and can fly up to 5 km per night.
Females lay eggs in masses on the underside of tea leaves. First instar larvae disperse to feed on young leaves or shoot tips. Later instars web together leaves to create a nest in which pupation occurs. Larvae complete 5-6 instars and overwintering occurs in the larval stage although there is no diapause.
Adoxophyes honmai is the most common pest of tea in Japan along with Homona magnanima. Larvae of A. honmai cause damage that is uniformly distributed on the tea bush, where the damage caused by H. magnanima is restricted to one area of the plant. Sakamaki and Hayakawa (2004) recorded Adoxophyes dubia as feeding on tea in Japan, sometimes occuring sympatrically with A. honmai.
In addition to tea, A. honmai has been recorded feed on host plants in several other families.
|Family ||Genus/species ||Common name|
|Araliaceae ||Hedera thombea (Miq.) Bean |
|Asteraceae ||Solidago altissima L. ||Canada goldenrod|
|Caprifoliaceae ||Viburnum suspensum Lindl. ||viburnum|
|Fagaceae ||Quercus phillyraeoides A. Gray ||ubame oak|
|Magnoliaceae ||Michelia champaca L. ||michelia|
|Myrtaceae ||Eucalyptus L'Her. ||gum|
|Rosaceae ||[unspecified] ||cherry|
|Theaceae ||Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze ||tea|
Adoxophyes honmai has been recorded from Japan and Korea. Other tea-feeding Adoxophyes species are present in Asia, and it is unknown if these are conspecific with A. honmai.
Lee, S. Y., H. Park, K. S. Boo, K.-T. Park and S. Cho. 2005. Molecular identification of Adoxophyes honmai (Yasuda) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) based on mitochondrial COI gene sequences. Molecules and cells. 19: 391-397.
Nakai, M. 2009. Biological control of Tortricidae in tea fields in Japan using insect viruses and parasitoids. Virologica Sinica. 24: 323-332.
Sakamaki, Y. and T. Hayakawa. 2004. Specific differences in larval and pupal characters of Japanese species of Adoxophyes (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology. 39: 443-453.
Shirai, Y. and Y. Kosugi. 2000. Flight activity of the smaller tea tortrix, Adoxophyes honmai (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology. 35: 459-466.
Tamaki, Y. 1991. Tortricids in tea, pp. 541-551. In L. P. S. van der Geest and H. H. Evenhius [eds.], Tortricid Pests: Their Biology, Natural Enemies, and Control. World Crop Pests, Vol. 5. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Yasuda, T. 1998. The Japanese species of the genus Adoxophyes Meyrick (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae). Transactions of the Lepidopterological Society of Japan. 49: 159-173.
Zhou, J.-H., H.-G. Qui and W.-J. Fu. 1997. Summer fruit tortrix Adoxophyes orana should be classified as two subspecies (Lepidoptera: Tortricoidea: Tortricidae). Entomotaxonomia. 19: 130-135.