Acleris is a large genus in the Tortricini that contains approximately 250 species. Most species diversity occurs in the Palearctic and Nearctic. Forewing pattern is quite variable in many species and some, such as Acleris hastiana, have been described as the most variable of all Lepidoptera in terms of markings and coloration. The high diversity of wing patterns has lead to the application of over 800 names to this group describing the various forms, aberrations, and varieties. Many species have patches of raised scales on the forewings.
Several species are of economic concern. The budworms, Acleris variana and Acleris gloverana, are important forest pests that can cause serious damage to fir, spruce, and other Pinaceae. Acleris comariana is a pest of strawberry and other Rosaceae and has been recently introduced into the Pacific Northwest. Acleris minuta is a minor pest of cranberry, apple, and plum. Other species are minor pests of fruit trees.
It is assumed that any Acleris larvae arriving at U.S. ports would originate from Europe, although there are no specific records for this genus. Identification of larvae is difficult and molecular diagnostics may be necessary to confirm identity.
Eleven species are treated here, primarily to aid in identification as non-target captures during CAPS surveys. All are present in the U.S., although some, such as Acleris comariana and Acleris holmiana, have limited distribution. For photos of additional non-targets not covered here, visit the Moth Photographers Group link below.
The following external links require an internet connection. The authors, CSU, CDFA, and USDA/APHIS/PPQ/CPHST are not responsible for the availability or content of these external sites:
Moth Photographers Group - Tortricini
Bradley, J. D., W. G. Tremewan and A. Smith. 1973. British Tortricoid Moths - Cochylidae and Tortricidae: Tortricinae. The Ray Society, London, England.
Chapman, P. J. and S. E. Lienk. 1971. Tortricid fauna of apple in New York (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae); including an account of apple's occurrence in the state, especially as a naturalized plant. Spec. Publ. Geneva, NY: New York State Agricultural Experiment Station. 122 pp.
Obraztsov, N. S. 1963. Some North American moths of the genus Acleris. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 114: 213-270.
Powell, J. A. 1962. Taxonomic studies on the Acleris gloverana -variana complex, the black-headed budworms (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Canadian Entomologist. 94: 833-840.
Powell, J. A. 1964. Biological and taxonomic studies on tortricine moths, with reference to the species in California. University of California Publications in Entomology. Vol. 32. 317 pp.
Razowski, J. 2002. Tortricidae of Europe, Vol. 1, Tortricinae and Chlidanotinae. Frantisek Slamka, Slovakia. 247 pp.