Anoplophora chinensis (Coloptera: Cerambicidae)
white-spotted longicorn beetle, citrus-root cerambycid, black and white longicorn beetle
Asian long-horned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis
southern whitespotted sawyer, Monochamus titillator
United States: not known to occur, eradicated from Georgia, Hawaii, Washington, and Wisconsin.
Worldwide: China, Japan, Korea, Indonesia, Macau, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam.
Native to China, Japan, and Korea.
In tropical and sub-tropical conditions, one generation generation:
the time it takes for an insect to develop from egg to adult
per year is common. The insect takes 1 - 2 years to complete its development. Eggs are laid by the females in a 3 - 4 mm (0.12 - 0.16 in.) transverse slit in the bark of the lower trunk that resembles a reverse "T-shape." Larvae feed on inner bark, making irregular tunnels in the wood. The egg chamber is plugged by a sticky secretion from the female. It is estimated that 90% of the longhorned beetle larvae mature below ground. Typical signs of infestation include round or slightly oval emergence emergence:
used to describe the completion pupation that culminates in the appearance of the adult form of an insect
holes 6 - 9 mm (0.24 - 0.35 in.), piles of sawdust and excrement (frass), and oozing sap. The beetles are strong fliers.
The insect can arrive on woody plants. It was discovered in Tukwila, Washington in 2001 on a Japanese maple bonsai imported from Korea. Wood packing material may provide a means of dispersal.
The beetle is targeted for eradication in the United States.
Synonyms for the citrus long-horned beetle include Anoplophora malaisica.
Hérard, F., M. Ciampitti, M. Maspero, H. Krehan, U. Benker, C. Boegel, R. Schrage, L. Bouhot-Delduc, and P. Bialooki. 2006. Anoplophora species in Europe: infestations and management processes. EPPO Bulletin 36: 470-474. (http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118562558/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0).
(IUCN/SSC) Invasive Species Specialist Group. 2009. Global Invasive Species Database: Anoplophora chinensis. (http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=1404&fr=1&sts=sss).
(NAPPO) North American Plant Protection Organization. 2008. NAPPO phytosanitary alert system: Anoplophora chinensis (Forster, 1771), citrus longhorned beetle discovered in two Washington state nurseries (U.S.A.). (http://www.pestalert.org/viewArchPestAlert.cfm?rid=72).
(NAPIS) National Agricultural Pest Information System. 2008. Pest tracker: reported status of citrus longhorned beetle Anoplophora chinensis (http://pest.ceris.purdue.edu/searchmap.php?selectName=INALRBA).
(USDA APHIS) United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. 2009. Federal order: Anoplophora chinensis (Forster), the citrus longhorned beetle (CLB) and Anoplophora glabripennis, Asian longhorned beetle (ALB). (http://www.aphis.usda.gov/import_export/plants/plant_imports/federal_order/downloads/citrus_alb_2009_16_1.pdf).
Walker, K. 2008. Citrus longhorned beetle (Anoplophora chinensis) Pest and diseases image library. (http://www.padil.gov.au/viewPestDiagnosticImages.aspx?id=268).
Gyeltshen, J. and A. Hodges. 2005. Featured creatures fact sheet: Citrus longhorned beetle (Insecta: Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Publication EENY-357. University of Florida. (http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/trees/beetles/citrus_longhorned_beetle.htm).
Weeks, J.A., K.W. Martin, A.C. Hodges, and N.C. Leppla
citrus long-horned beetle adult; photo courtesy of Pest and Diseases Image Library, www.bugwood.org
citrus long-horned beetle adult feeding damage; photo courtesy of Pest and Diseases Image Library, www.bugwood.org
citrus long-horned beetle emergence hole; photo courtesy of Pest and Diseases Image Library, www.bugwood.org
citrus long-horned beetle tunneling damage; photo courtesy of Pest and Diseases Image Library, www.bugwood.org