About these pages
Tortricids of Agricultural Importance (TortAI) is designed to aid in the identification of tortricid adults encountered during
domestic surveys and tortricid larvae encountered during quarantine inspections at U.S. ports of entry. This resource includes interactive
identification keys, detailed fact sheets, an illustrated glossary, information on dissecting and preparing specimens, identification thumbnail galleries,
and a database of DNA barcode sequences. The interactive identification keys run as a Lucid3 Java Applet. Please read the Lucid3 system requirements
for information regarding operating systems, web browsers, and other software needed to use the keys.
TortAI was developed and published by the Center for Plant Health Science and Technology (CPHST) as part of a cooperative agreement with Colorado
State University and in collaboration with the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA). CPHST is the scientific support organization for the Plant
Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) division of the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and is under the direction of Dr. Phil Berger. CPHST
Identification Technology Program (ITP) Coordinator Dr. Terrence Walters oversaw key development.
Todd M. Gilligan and Marc E. Epstein are the authors of TortAI. T. M. Gilligan is located at Colorado State University in the Department of Bioagricultural
Sciences and Pest Management in Fort Collins, Colorado and M. E. Epstein is located at the California Department of Food and Agriculture's Plant Pest Diagnostics
Branch in Sacramento, California.
Photographic images were produced by the authors unless otherwise credited. The photographers and organizations who gave permission to use their
images are credited in the fact sheets and/or in the Acknowledgments. All drawings were produced by Todd Gilligan using Adobe Illustrator.
See Copyright, citation, and disclaimers for information about use of content on these pages and in the key.
The purpose of Tortricids of Agricultural Importance (TortAI) is to aid in the identification of tortricid adults encountered during
domestic surveys and tortricid larvae encountered during quarantine inspections at U.S. ports of entry. Because the world tortricid
fauna is too large to treat as a whole, this resource is not designed to identify every tortricid encountered, but rather to reliably
eliminate or confirm target taxa if or when they are encountered. It may not be possible to identify many tortricid larvae using only
morphological characters. A molecular sequence search tool is provided to allow identifiers with sequencing capabilities the ability to
confirm DNA barcode sequences for the larvae of most taxa treated here.
TortAI is designed for use by persons in the continental United States performing domestic surveys for exotic species or
encountering exotic species during port inspections (taxa originating from Hawaii are treated as exotic). Although much of the information
can be applied to other parts of the world, identification characters for adults and larvae (outlined below) are specific to the scope of the
keys and may lead to ambiguous or misleading results when used outside of this context. TortAI is not designed as a general resource for
identifying all tortricid species.
For information concerning TortAI or to offer any feedback or comments, please contact the
authors (click to email).
Thousands of specimens were examined during the construction of TortAI. Adults were used to study wing pattern, male and female genitalia, and secondary
sexual structures. Larvae were used to study chaetotaxy along with other morphological features. Both adults and larvae were used to construct a database of
DNA barcodes used in the DNA Sequence Search Tool. While it was not possible to document every specimen examined over the course of the project, much of the data
is provided below (all data files are in PDF format and open in a new window).
Institutions or individuals who loaned specimens or data listed here are credited in the Acknowledgments.
Adult genitalia log
The slides and specimens listed here were used to produce photos of male and female genitalia for the fact sheets and interactive keys. Existing slides
from the Smithsonian (USNM numbers) were used for some photos, while new slides were created by Todd Gilligan (TMG numbers) for the remaining taxa.
Click here for the: TortAI genitalia slide log.
Larvae examined log
Many of the larvae used to define morphological characters for the interactive larval key are listed here. Other individuals and species not listed here were
also examined. Click here for the: TortAI larvae examined log.
DNA Sequence Search Tool log
All of the sequences (and associated specimen data) included in the database (.xml file) used by the DNA Sequence Search Tool are listed here.
GenBank numbers are provided for sequences available on GenBank at the time of CD-ROM publication. When available, GenBank
numbers for the remaining sequences will be updated on this site.
Click here for the: TortAI DNA Sequence Search Tool log.