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Copyright, citation, and disclaimers

Copyright notice

Unless otherwise indicated, content in TortAI was created and/or authored under a cooperative agreement between Colorado State University (CSU), the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA), and the Center for Plant Health Science and Technology (USDA/APHIS/PPQ/CPHST). This content may be freely distributed or copied in the public domain for non-commercial purposes. However, it is requested that in any subsequent use of this work the authors, CSU, CDFA, and USDA/APHIS/PPQ/CPHST be given appropriate acknowledgement (see below).

TortAI may contain information, text, and images created and/or prepared by individuals or institutions other than CSU, CDFA, or USDA/APHIS/PPQ/CPHST, that may be protected by copyright. Sources of information and text are mentioned on the Acknowledgments page, and in most instances the origin of images has been indicated on specific fact sheets. Users must seek permission from the copyright owner(s) to use this material. Links to the Internet sites of some individuals and institutions are available on the Acknowledgments page; contact Todd Gilligan if you need assistance identifying or locating the copyright owner.

Suggested citation

Gilligan, T. M. & M. E. Epstein. 2012. TortAI, Tortricids of Agricultural Importance to the United States (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Identification Technology Program (ITP), USDA/APHIS/PPQ/CPHST, Fort Collins, CO. [accessed at].

Image Credits

Photo: T. M. Gilligan & M. E. Epstein, TortAI (

(Unless otherwise noted)


While the authors have made every effort to provide accurate information in TortAI, the authors, Colorado State University, the California Department of Food and Agriculture, and USDA/APHIS/PPQ/CPHST specifically disclaim all legal liability with respect to the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information contained in TortAI. The authors and associated institutions shall assume no legal liability for any damages, including direct, indirect, consequential, compensatory, special, punitive, or incidental damages arising from or relating to the use of TortAI or the information and materials provided by or linked from TortAI.

External links

Some web pages in TortAI provide links to Internet sites for the convenience of users. The authors, CSU, CDFA, and USDA/APHIS/PPQ/CPHST are not responsible for the availability or content of these external sites, nor do the authors, CSU, CDFA, and USDA/APHIS/PPQ/CPHST endorse or warrant the products, services, or information described or offered by these Internet sites.

  Tortricids of Agricultural Importance by Todd M. Gilligan and Marc E. Epstein
   Interactive Keys developed in Lucid 3.5. Last updated August 2014.