About this tool

Copyright, citation, and disclaimers

Copyright notice

The content on this site was created by the USDA APHIS Identification Technology Program (ITP) through a cooperative agreement with the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA). The content is in the public domain except where otherwise indicated. However, we ask that appropriate acknowledgement is given to the authors, USDA APHIS PPQ ITP and CDFA if the information and figures from Scale Insects is used elsewhere.

This site also includes content created by other individuals or institutions. Where this content is copyrighted, it should be properly credited, and users must seek permission from the appropriate copyright owners to use this material. Please see the permissions table for image credit information.

Suggested citation

Miller, D., A. Rung, G. Parikh, G. Venable, A.J. Redford, G.A. Evans, and R.J. Gill. 2014. Scale Insects, Edition 2. USDA APHIS Identification Technology Program (ITP). Fort Collins, CO. [date of access] <https://idtools.org/scales/>

Image credits

Images on the home page were taken from the fact sheets, and the credits can be found in the captions on their respective fact sheets.

Whole body (slide-mounted specimen) images were taken by Alessandra Rung.

Habitus images are credited in image captions on each fact sheet page.

Illustration references, sources, and permissions can be found in this downloadable PDF.


Despite the usefulness of Scale Insects, Edition 2, it must be emphasized that it contains only a small subset of the world scale fauna. Therefore, there is a chance that a species that is not represented in the tool will key out as one that is (a false positive identification). For this reason, identifications should always be checked against information on the species pages and compared with authoritatively identified reference specimens for further assessment.

Even though we have made every effort to provide accurate and updated information, the authors, USDA APHIS PPQ ITP and CDFA specifically disclaim all legal liability with respect to the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information contained in Scale Insects, Edition 2. The authors and the institutions involved shall assume no legal liability for any damages, including direct, indirect, consequential, compensatory, special, punitive, or incidental damages arising from or relating to the use of Scale Insects, Edition 2 or the information and materials provided by or linked to from Scale Insects, Edition 2.

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination against its customers, employees, and applicants for employment on the bases of race, color, national origin, age, disability, sex, gender identity, religion, reprisal, and where applicable, political beliefs, marital status, familial or parental status, sexual orientation, or all or part of an individual’s income is derived from any public assistance program, or protected genetic information in employment or in any program or activity conducted or funded by the Department. (Not all prohibited bases will apply to all programs and/or employment activities.

Mention of companies or commercial products does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the USDA over others not mentioned. USDA neither guarantees nor warrants the standard of any product mentioned. Product names are mentioned solely to report factually on available data and to provide specific information.