CAPS Secondary Target - Adult
Pandemis heparana (Denis & Schiffermuller) (Tortricidae: Tortricinae: Archipini)
Common names: dark fruit-tree tortrix
Synonyms: cappana (Tortrix), cappata (Tortrix), carpiniana (Tortrix), fasciana (Pyralis), heperana (Tortrix), padana (Tortrix), pasquayana (Tortrix), rubrana (Tortrix), subclarana (var.), vulpisana (Lozotaenia)
FWL: 8.0-12.0 mm
Adults are medium brown with fasciate markings and light to medium grayish-brown hindwings. Pandemis heparana can be separated from other Pandemis listed here by the grayish-brown hindwings and the lack of dark scales on the second abdominal sternite in the male.
Six species of Pandemis occur in the Nearctic. Four, P. canadana, P. lamprosana, P. limitata, and P. pyrusana, are native, while two, P. cerasana and P. heparana, have been introduced from the Palearctic. All species treated here have a straw (yellow) to brown forewing with brown to dark-brown markings consisting of a patch on the costa below the apex, a median band that extends from costa to dorsum, and a basal band. The two bands (or fasciae) may be lined with light or dark scales in some individuals, creating the appearance of three lines running vertically across the wing. Males have a distinctive notch at the base of the antennae and modified dark scales on the ventral surface of abdominal segments 2-3 (this character is absent in P. lamprosana and P. heparana). Males lack a forewing costal fold.
Species identification within the group is difficult. Pandemis lamprosana, P. cerasana, and P. heparana, can be identified by wing color and male genitalia. The other three species, P. canadana, P. limitata, and P. pyrusana, exhibit variable wing patterns, share identical genitalia, and cannot be reliably separated where their distributions overlap. The following table lists a combination of wing color and geographic distribution that can be used to identify many Pandemis individuals collected in the U.S.
|Pandemis species ||Forewing color ||Hindwing color ||Sex scales on male 2nd abd. segment ||Distribution|
|canadana ||medium to dark brown ||all gray ||present ||Maine, Colorado, Wyoming, Southern Canada|
|cerasana ||straw to light brown ||grayish brown ||present ||Pacific Northwest, British Columbia; Europe and Asia|
|heparana ||medium brown ||light to medium grayish brown ||absent ||Pacific Northwest, British Columbia; Europe and Asia|
|lamprosana ||tan to light brown ||white to light gray ||absent ||Northeastern U.S., southern Quebec and Ontario|
|limitata ||straw to medium brown ||gray and white ||present || Eastern U.S. and southern Canada; generally absent in the U.S. west of the Rocky Mtns.|
|pyrusana ||straw to medium brown ||all white ||present ||Rocky Mtns. west to California, southern Alberta and British Columbia|
Late instar larvae are entirely green and unmarked with moderately large pinacula and long setae. The head is variably colored from light green to yellowish brown with black lateral markings. The prothoracic shield is green or yellowish brown with black posterolateral markings. A well developed anal comb is present with 6-8 teeth.
MacKay (1962) examined several species of Nearctic Pandemis and could find no species-specific larval characters. Diagnostic characters for the genus include: SD2 on A1-8 on same pinaculum as SD1; L1 and L2 anterior to spiracle on A2-8; SV group on A1,2,7,8,9 usually 3:3:3:2:2; D2s on A8 as far apart as D1s; D1 on A9 on its own pinaculum; anal setae very long; anal comb with 6-8 teeth.
In Europe, Pandemis heparana completes one or two generations per year. Adults are present June-July for the first generation and August-September for the second generation.
Females deposit eggs in masses on the upper surface of leaves. Larvae feed on leaves and construct a hibernaculum in the second or third instar in which to overwinter. Larvae resume feeding in the spring. Pupation occurs in the final larval feeding site.
Larvae of Pandemis heparana are polyphagous and have been recorded feeding on plants in more than 20 families. This species is considered an occasional orchard pest.
|Family ||Genus/species ||Common name|
|Aceraceae ||Acer L. ||maple|
|Asteraceae ||Achillea L. ||yarrow|
|Asteraceae ||Arctium L. ||burdock|
|Asteraceae ||Arctium lappa L. ||greater burdock|
|Asteraceae ||Artemisia montana Pamp. |
|Asteraceae ||Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers. ||eastern daisy|
|Betulaceae ||Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. ||European alder|
|Betulaceae ||Alnus japonica (Thunb.) Steud. ||Japanese alder|
|Betulaceae ||Alnus Mill. ||alder|
|Betulaceae ||Betula L. ||birch|
|Betulaceae ||Betula platyphylla Sukaczev ||Asian white birch|
|Betulaceae ||Carpinus L. ||hornbeam|
|Betulaceae ||Corylus L. ||hazelnut|
|Boraginaceae ||Anchusa L. ||bugloss|
|Cannabaceae ||Humulus L. ||hop|
|Caprifoliaceae ||Lonicera periclymenum L. ||European honeysuckle|
|Chenopodiaceae ||Beta vulgaris L. ||common beet|
|Cornaceae ||Cornus controversa Hemsl. ex Prain ||giant dogwood|
|Cornaceae ||Cornus L. ||dogwood|
|Elaeagnaceae ||Elaeagnus L. ||oleaster|
|Ericaceae ||Rhododendron mucronulatum Turcz. |
|Ericaceae ||Vaccinium L. ||blueberry|
|Ericaceae ||Vaccinium uliginosum L. ||bog blueberry|
|Ericaceae ||Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. ||lingonberry|
|Fabaceae ||Phaseolus L. ||bean|
|Fabaceae ||Trifolium repens L. ||white clover|
|Fagaceae ||Castanea crenata Siebold & Zucc. ||Japanese chestnut|
|Fagaceae ||Castanea Mill. ||chestnut|
|Fagaceae ||Fagus L. ||beech|
|Fagaceae ||Quercus cerris L. ||European turkey oak|
|Fagaceae ||Quercus dentata Thunb. ||Daimyo oak|
|Fagaceae ||Quercus L. ||oak|
|Fagaceae ||Quercus robur L. ||English oak|
|Grossulariaceae ||Ribes L. ||currant|
|Juglandaceae ||Juglans L. ||walnut|
|Linaceae ||Linum usitatissimum L. ||common flax|
|Moraceae ||Morus L. ||mulberry|
|Myricaceae ||Myrica gale L. ||sweetgale|
|Oleaceae ||Fraxinus L. ||ash|
|Oleaceae ||Ligustrum L. ||privet|
|Oleaceae ||Ligustrum yesoense Nakai |
|Oleaceae ||Syringa L. ||lilac|
|Oleaceae ||Syringa vulgaris L. ||common lilac|
|Polygonaceae ||Rumex obtusifolius L. ||bitter dock|
|Primulaceae ||Lysimachia L. ||yellow loosestrife|
|Rhamnaceae ||Rhamnus L. ||buckthorn|
|Rosaceae ||Crataegus chlorosarca Maxim. |
|Rosaceae ||Crataegus L. ||hawthorn|
|Rosaceae ||Cydonia oblonga Mill. ||quince|
|Rosaceae ||Fragaria L. ||strawberry|
|Rosaceae ||Malus domestica Borkh. ||apple|
|Rosaceae ||Malus pumila Mill. ||paradise apple|
|Rosaceae ||Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. ||European crab apple|
|Rosaceae ||Malus Mill. ||apple|
|Rosaceae ||Prunus armeniaca L. ||apricot|
|Rosaceae ||Prunus avium (L.) L. ||sweet cherry|
|Rosaceae ||Prunus persica (L.) Batsch ||peach|
|Rosaceae ||Prunus salicina Lindl. ||Japanese plum|
|Rosaceae ||Prunus serrulata Lindl. ||Japanese flowering cherry|
|Rosaceae ||Prunus X yedoensis Matsum. (pro sp.) [subhirtella X speciosa] |
|Rosaceae ||Prunus L. |
|Rosaceae ||Pyrus L. ||pear|
|Rosaceae ||Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim. |
|Rosaceae ||Rosa L. ||rose|
|Rosaceae ||Rubus L. ||blackberry|
|Rosaceae ||Sorbus L. ||mountain ash|
|Rutaceae ||Phellodendron amurense Rupr. ||Amur corktree|
|Salicaceae ||Populus L. ||cottonwood|
|Salicaceae ||Salix caprea L. ||goat willow|
|Salicaceae ||Salix cinerea L. ||large gray willow|
|Salicaceae ||Salix L. ||willow|
|Tiliaceae ||Tilia L. ||basswood|
|Ulmaceae ||Ulmus davidiana Planch. ||Japanese elm|
|Ulmaceae ||Ulmus L. ||elm|
Pandemis heparana is widely distributed in the Palearctic from Western Europe to Asia. In North America it has been introduced to the Pacific Northwest. The first North American records are from British Columbia in 1978.
Bradley, J. D., W. G. Tremewan and A. Smith. 1973. British Tortricoid Moths - Cochylidae and Tortricidae: Tortricinae. The Ray Society, London, England.
Dombroskie, J. J. 2011. Aspects of archipine evolution (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). University of Alberta, Department of Biological Sciences. Ph.D. dissertation. 488 pp.
Mutuura, A. 1980. Two Pandemis species introduced into British Columbia, with a comparison of native North American species (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). The Canadian Entomologist. 112: 549-554.
Razowski, J. 2002. Tortricidae of Europe, Vol. 1, Tortricinae and Chlidanotinae. Frantisek Slamka, Slovakia. 247 pp.
Fig. 7: Gyorgy Csoka, Hungary Forest Research Institute, Bugwood.org
Tortricids of Agricultural Importance by Todd M. Gilligan and Marc E. Epstein
Interactive Keys developed in Lucid 3.4. Last updated April 2012.