FWL: 8.0-12.0 mm
Adults are straw to light brown with fasciate markings and grayish-brown hindwings. Pandemis cerasana can be separated from other Pandemis listed here by the grayish-brown hindwings and dark scales on the second abdominal sternite in the male.
Six species of Pandemis occur in the Nearctic. Four, P. canadana, P. lamprosana, P. limitata, and P. pyrusana, are native, while two, P. cerasana and P. heparana, have been introduced from the Palearctic. All species treated here have a straw (yellow) to brown forewing with brown to dark-brown markings consisting of a patch on the costa below the apex, a median band that extends from costa to dorsum, and a basal band. The two bands (or fasciae) may be lined with light or dark scales in some individuals, creating the appearance of three lines running vertically across the wing. Males have a distinctive notch at the base of the antennae and modified dark scales on the ventral surface of abdominal segments 2-3 (this character is absent in P. lamprosana and P. heparana). Males lack a forewing costal fold.
Species identification within the group is difficult. Pandemis lamprosana, P. cerasana, and P. heparana, can be identified by wing color and male genitalia. The other three species, P. canadana, P. limitata, and P. pyrusana, exhibit variable wing patterns, share identical genitalia, and cannot be reliably separated where their distributions overlap. The following table lists a combination of wing color and geographic distribution that can be used to identify many Pandemis individuals collected in the U.S.
|Pandemis species ||Forewing color ||Hindwing color ||Sex scales on male 2nd abd. segment ||Distribution|
|canadana ||medium to dark brown ||all gray ||present ||Maine, Colorado, Wyoming, Southern Canada|
|cerasana ||straw to light brown ||grayish brown ||present ||Pacific Northwest, British Columbia; Europe and Asia|
|heparana ||medium brown ||light to medium grayish brown ||absent ||Pacific Northwest, British Columbia; Europe and Asia|
|lamprosana ||tan to light brown ||white to light gray ||absent ||Northeastern U.S., southern Quebec and Ontario|
|limitata ||straw to medium brown ||gray and white ||present ||Eastern U.S. and southern Canada; generally absent in the U.S. west of the Rocky Mtns.|
|pyrusana ||straw to medium brown ||all white ||present ||Rocky Mtns. west to California, southern Alberta and British Columbia|
Late instar larvae are entirely green and unmarked with moderately large pinacula and long setae. Head and prothoracic shield are light green to yellowish green with black posterolateral markings. The spiracles on the prothorax and eighth abdominal segment are 2-3 times the diameter of other abdominal spiracles. A well developed anal comb is present with 6-8 teeth.
MacKay (1962) examined several species of Nearctic Pandemis and could find no species-specific larval characters. Diagnostic characters for the genus include: SD2 on A1-8 on same pinaculum as SD1; L1 and L2 anterior to spiracle on A2-8; SV group on A1,2,7,8,9 usually 3:3:3:2:2; D2s on A8 as far apart as D1s; D1 on A9 on its own pinaculum; anal setae very long; anal comb with 6-8 teeth.
In Europe, P. cerasana completes one or two generations per year. Adults are present June-July for the first generation and August-September for the second generation.
Females deposit eggs in masses on the upper surface of leaves or on branches. Some eggs hatch in late summer; others overwinter and larvae emerge the following spring. Larvae that emerge before winter construct a hibernaculum in the second or third instar. Larvae feed on leaves in the spring and pupation occurs in the final larval feeding site.
Larvae of Pandemis cerasana have been recorded feeding on plants in 15 families. This species is an occasional orchard pest.
|Family ||Genus/species ||Common name|
|Aceraceae ||Acer L. ||maple|
|Balsaminaceae ||Impatiens L. ||touch-me-not|
|Berberidaceae ||Berberis L. ||barberry|
|Betulaceae ||Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. ||European alder|
|Betulaceae ||Betula L. ||birch|
|Betulaceae ||Corylus avellana L. ||common filbert|
|Caprifoliaceae ||Lonicera periclymenum L. ||European honeysuckle|
|Ericaceae ||Vaccinium L. ||blueberry|
|Fagaceae ||Quercus L. ||oak|
|Fagaceae ||Quercus robur L. ||English oak|
|Grossulariaceae ||Ribes L. ||currant|
|Oleaceae ||Fraxinus L. ||ash|
|Primulaceae ||Lysimachia L. ||yellow loosestrife|
|Rhamnaceae ||Rhamnus L. ||buckthorn|
|Rosaceae ||Crataegus L. ||hawthorn|
|Rosaceae ||Geum L. ||avens|
|Rosaceae ||Malus domestica Borkh. ||apple|
|Rosaceae ||Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. ||European crab apple|
|Rosaceae ||Prunus L. |
|Rosaceae ||Pyrus L. ||pear|
|Rosaceae ||Rosa L. ||rose|
|Rosaceae ||Sorbus L. ||mountain ash|
|Rosaceae ||Sorbus aucuparia L. ||European mountain ash|
|Salicaceae ||Salix cinerea L. ||large gray willow|
|Salicaceae ||Salix L. ||willow|
|Tiliaceae ||Tilia L. ||basswood|
|Ulmaceae ||Ulmus L. ||elm|
Pandemis cerasana is widely distributed in the Palearctic from Western Europe to Asia. In North America it has been introduced to the Pacific Northwest. The first North American records are from British Columbia in 1965.
Bradley, J. D., W. G. Tremewan and A. Smith. 1973. British Tortricoid Moths - Cochylidae and Tortricidae: Tortricinae. The Ray Society, London, England.
Dombroskie, J. J. 2011. Aspects of archipine evolution (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). University of Alberta, Department of Biological Sciences. Ph.D. dissertation. 488 pp.
Mutuura, A. 1980. Two Pandemis species introduced into British Columbia, with a comparison of native North American species (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). The Canadian Entomologist. 112: 549-554.
Razowski, J. 2002. Tortricidae of Europe, Vol. 1, Tortricinae and Chlidanotinae. Frantisek Slamka, Slovakia. 247 pp.
Fig. 7: Sander van der Molen
Fig. 8: Csaba Szaboky, Bugwood.org