FWL: 7.0-11.5 mm
Adults are brown to reddish brown with a dark-brown pretornal spot that is more pronounced in females. Males have sex scales on the hindwing, hind tibia, and abdomen. Male genitalia are characterized by swollen valvae with three large spines on the cucullus. Female genitalia are characterized by a narrow, V-shaped sterigma that is separate from the posterior margin of sternum VII and two signa in the corpus bursae. Males lack a forewing costal fold.
Adults of most Cryptophlebia species are superficially similar and are often mixed in museum collections. A genitalic dissection is usually necessary to confirm identity. The three species treated here, C. illepida, C. ombrodelta, and C. peltastica, can be separated by genitalic characters and geographic distribution, as outlined in the following table:
|Cryptophlebia species ||Male valva ||Female sterigma ||Distribution|
|illepida ||Two large spines, multiple rows of marginal spines ||Wide, V-shaped ||Hawaii|
|ombrodelta ||Three large spines ||Narrow, V-shaped, separate ||Australia, Guam, Japan, India, Southeast Asia, Hawaii (int.)|
|peltastica ||Three large spines, margin densely setose ||Narrow, ovate, deeply inset ||Africa, Seychelles, Mauritius, Guam (int.)|
Both C. illepida and C. ombrodelta occur in Hawaii; the former is assumed to be native as it is has not been found in any other locality, and the latter has been introduced. In addition to the genitalic differences listed above, adults of these two species can be separated by a character on the male hind tibia: in C. ombrodelta there is an ovate bare patch that is absent in C. illepida.
Late instar larvae are approximately 13-20 mm long. The abdomen is yellowish white, turning reddish in the final instar. Pinacula are large and darker than body color in most species; however, pinacula are not heavily sclerotized and may be difficult to observe in preserved individuals. The head and prothoracic shield are black or dark brown in early instars, turning pale or yellowish brown in the final instar. An anal comb is usually absent, although some individuals may have a rudimentary anal comb with 4-6 small teeth (especially common in C. ombrodelta).
Other diagnostic features of Cryptophlebia larvae include: T1 prespiracular pinaculum extends below the spiracle; SV counts on A1,2,7,8,9 as 3:3:2(3):2(1):1; SV seta on A8 and A9 bisetose; spiracle on A8 near posterior margin of segment and displaced dorsally; L group on A9 usually trisetose (occasionally bisetose); D1 and SD1 setae on same pinaculum on A9; and D2 setae on shared saddle pinaculum on A9.
The biology of C. ombrodelta is similar to that of C. illepida. Development is continuous and adults are present year-round.
Females lay eggs on the fruits or pods of the host plant. Larvae bore into the fruit or pod and feed on the seeds. Pupation occurs in the fruit or pod or in the ground.
Cryptophlebia ombrodelta is an important pest of macadamia, litchi, and longan fruit in Asia, Australia, and Hawaii. Larvae are moderately polyphagous and have been recorded feeding on plants in several families.
|Family ||Genus/species ||Common name|
|Arecaceae ||Cocos nucifera L. ||coconut palm|
|Euphorbiaceae ||Nephelium lappaceum L. ||rambutan|
|Fabaceae ||Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd. ||sweet acacia|
|Fabaceae ||Acacia Mill. ||acacia|
|Fabaceae ||Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile ||gum arabic tree|
|Fabaceae ||Adenanthera pavonina L. ||red beadtree|
|Fabaceae ||Bauhinia hirsuta Weinm. ||orchid tree|
|Fabaceae ||Bauhinia L. ||bauhinia|
|Fabaceae ||Bauhinia malabarica Roxb. ||orchid tree|
|Fabaceae ||Bauhinia purpurea L. ||butterfly tree|
|Fabaceae ||Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston ||shoofly|
|Fabaceae ||Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) Sw. ||pride-of-Barbados|
|Fabaceae ||Caesalpinia sappan L. ||sappanwood|
|Fabaceae ||Cassia fistula L. ||golden shower|
|Fabaceae ||Cassia javanica L. X fistula L. ||rainbow shower|
|Fabaceae ||Cassia L. ||cassia|
|Fabaceae ||Delonix Raf. ||delonix|
|Fabaceae ||Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook.) Raf. ||royal poinciana|
|Fabaceae ||Glycine max (L.) Merr. ||soybean|
|Fabaceae ||Indigofera suffruticosa Mill. ||anil de pasto|
|Fabaceae ||Parkinsonia aculeata L. ||Jerusalem thorn|
|Fabaceae ||Phaseolus L. ||bean|
|Fabaceae ||Phaseolus lunatus L. ||sieva bean|
|Fabaceae ||Phaseolus vulgaris L. ||kidney bean|
|Fabaceae ||Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. ||monkeypod|
|Fabaceae ||Poinciana L. |
|Fabaceae ||Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. ||mesquite|
|Fabaceae ||Prosopis pallida (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Kunth ||kiawe|
|Fabaceae ||Senna alata (L.) Roxb. ||emperor's candlesticks|
|Fabaceae ||Senna bicapsularis (L.) Roxb. ||Christmasbush|
|Fabaceae ||Senna Mill. ||senna|
|Fabaceae ||Senna occidentalis (L.) Link ||septicweed|
|Fabaceae ||Senna septemtrionalis (Viv.) H. Irwin & Barneby ||arsenic bush|
|Fabaceae ||Senna sophera (L.) Roxb. ||algarrobilla|
|Fabaceae ||Sesbania bispinosa (Jaq.) W. Wight ||dunchi fiber|
|Fabaceae ||Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Poir. ||vegetable hummingbird|
|Fabaceae ||Sesbania Scop. ||riverhemp|
|Fabaceae ||Tamarindus indica L. ||tamarind|
|Fabaceae ||[unspecified] |
|Oxalidaceae ||Averrhoa carambola L. ||carambola|
|Polygonaceae ||Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. ||seagrape|
|Proteaceae ||Buckinghamia celsissima F. Muell. |
|Proteaceae ||Macadamia F. Muell. ||macadamia|
|Rutaceae ||Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. Serr. ||Indian bael|
|Rutaceae ||Citrus L. ||citrus|
|Rutaceae ||Citrus X sinensis (L.) Osbeck (pro sp.) [maxima X reticulata] ||sweet orange|
|Rutaceae ||Limonia L. ||limonia|
|Rutaceae ||Limonium acidissima L. ||Indian woodapple|
|Rutaceae ||[unspecified] |
|Sapindaceae ||Cupaniopsis anacardioides (A. Rich.) Radlk. ||carrotwood|
|Sapindaceae ||Dimocarpus longan Lour. ||longan|
|Sapindaceae ||Filicium decipiens Thwaites |
|Sapindaceae ||Litchi chinensis Sonn. [excluded] ||lychee|
|Sapindaceae ||[unspecified] |
Cryptophlebia ombrodelta is recorded from Australia, Guam, India, Japan, Java, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, and Thailand. It has been introduced into Hawaii.
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Horak, M. 2006. Olethreutine moths of Australia (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Monographs on Australian Lepidoptera, Vol. 10. 522 pp.
Jones, V. P. 1994. Feeding by Cryptophlebia illepida and C. ombrodelta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on macadamia nut abortion. Journal of Economic Entomology. 87: 781-786.
Jones, V. P. 1995. Sampling plans for Cryptophlebia spp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) attacking macadamia and litchi in Hawaii. Journal of Economic Entomology. 88: 1337-1342.
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Zimmerman, E. C. 1978. Insects of Hawaii, Volume 9, Microlepidoptera, Part 1. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii, 881 pp.