FWL: 7.0-11.0 mm
Adults are brown to reddish brown with a dark-brown pretornal spot that is reduced or absent in males. Males have sex scales on the hindwing, hind tibia, and abdomen. Male genitalia are characterized by swollen valvae with two large inner spines on the cucullus and several rows of smaller spines along the distal margin. Female genitalia are characterized by a wide, V-shaped sterigma and two signa in the corpus bursae. Males lack a forewing costal fold.
Adults of most Cryptophlebia species are superficially similar and are often mixed in museum collections. A genitalic dissection is usually necessary to confirm identity. The three species treated here, C. illepida, C. ombrodelta, and C. peltastica, can be separated by genitalic characters and geographic distribution, as outlined in the following table:
|Cryptophlebia species ||Male valva ||Female sterigma ||Distribution|
|illepida ||Two large spines, multiple rows of marginal spines ||Wide, V-shaped ||Hawaii|
|ombrodelta ||Three large spines ||Narrow, V-shaped, separate ||Australia, Guam, Japan, India, Southeast Asia, Hawaii (int.)|
|peltastica ||Three large spines, margin densely setose ||Narrow, ovate, deeply inset ||Africa, Seychelles, Mauritius, Guam (int.)|
Both C. illepida and C. ombrodelta occur in Hawaii; the former is assumed to be native as it is has not been found in any other locality, and the latter has been introduced. In addition to the genitalic differences listed above, adults of these two species can be separated by a character on the male hind tibia: in C. ombrodelta there is an ovate bare patch that is absent in C. illepida.
Late instar larvae are approximately 13-20 mm long. The abdomen is yellowish white, turning reddish in the final instar. Pinacula are large and darker than body color in most species; however, pinacula are not heavily sclerotized and may be difficult to observe in preserved individuals. The head and prothoracic shield are black or dark brown in early instars, turning pale or yellowish brown in the final instar. An anal comb is usually absent, although some individuals may have a rudimentary anal comb with 4-6 small teeth (especially common in C. ombrodelta).
Other diagnostic features of Cryptophlebia larvae include: T1 prespiracular pinaculum extends below the spiracle; SV counts on A1,2,7,8,9 as 3:3:2(3):2(1):1; SV seta on A8 and A9 bisetose; spiracle on A8 near posterior margin of segment and displaced dorsally; L group on A9 usually trisetose (occasionally bisetose); D1 and SD1 setae on same pinaculum on A9; and D2 setae on shared saddle pinaculum on A9.
Cryptophlebia illepida completes continuous generations and adults are present year-round.
The following describes the C. illepida life cycle on macadamia (from Namba 1957). Females lay eggs singly on the fruit (nut) of the host; as many as 15 eggs may be found on a single fruit. Larvae bore into the husk and are generally not able to penetrate the shell after hardening. Average larval development time is 16 days. Pupation occurs in a tunnel near an exit hole in the husk. Husk damage is often responsible for nut drop prior to to maturity.
This species is an important pest of macadamia, litchi, mango, and koa in Hawaii. Larvae are moderately polyphagous and have been recorded feeding an a variety of other plants.
|Family ||Genus/species ||Common name|
|Anacardiaceae ||Mangifera indica L. ||mango|
|Euphorbiaceae ||Nephelium lappaceum L. ||rambutan|
|Fabaceae ||Acacia confusa Merr. ||small Philippine acacia|
|Fabaceae ||Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd. ||sweet acacia|
|Fabaceae ||Acacia koa A. Gray ||koa|
|Fabaceae ||Acacia koaia Hillebr. ||koaoha|
|Fabaceae ||Acacia Mill. ||acacia|
|Fabaceae ||Bauhinia purpurea L. ||butterfly tree|
|Fabaceae ||Caesalpinia kavaiense H. Mann |
|Fabaceae ||Inga edulis Mart. ||icecreambean|
|Fabaceae ||Mezonevron kauaiense Hillebr. |
|Fabaceae ||Parkinsonia aculeata L. ||Jerusalem thorn|
|Fabaceae ||Phaseolus L. ||bean|
|Fabaceae ||Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. ||monkeypod|
|Fabaceae ||Senna sulfurea (DC. ex Collad.) Irwin & Barneby ||smooth senna|
|Proteaceae ||Macadamia F. Muell. ||macadamia|
|Proteaceae ||Macadamia integrifolia Maiden & Betche ||macadamia nut|
|Rutaceae ||Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. Serr. ||Indian bael|
|Sapindaceae ||Alectryon macrococcus Radlk. ||Hawaii alectryon|
|Sapindaceae ||Dodonaea viscosa (L.) Jacq. ||Florida hopbush|
|Sapindaceae ||Litchi chinensis Sonn. [excluded] ||lychee|
|Sapindaceae ||Sapindus oahuensis Hillebr. ex Radlk. ||lonomea|
|Sapindaceae ||Sapindus saponaria L. ||wingleaf soapberry|
Cryptophlebia illepida has only been recorded only from Hawaii; however, Zimmerman (1978) suspects that it may be an immigrant.
Bradley, J. D. 1953. Some important species of the genus Cryptophlebia Walsingham, 1899, with descriptions of three new species (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research. 43: 679-689.
Jones, V. P. 1994. Feeding by Cryptophlebia illepida and C. ombrodelta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on macadamia nut abortion. Journal of Economic Entomology. 87: 781-786.
Jones, V. P. 1995. Sampling plans for Cryptophlebia spp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) attacking macadamia and litchi in Hawaii. Journal of Economic Entomology. 88: 1337-1342.
Komai, F. 1999. A taxonomic review of the genus Grapholita and allied genera (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in the Palaearctic region. Entomologica Scandinavica Supplement 55. 226 pp.
Namba, R. 1957. Cryptophlebia illepida (Butler) (Lepidoptera: Eucosmidae) and other insect pests of the macadamia nut in Hawaii. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society. 16: 284-297.
Zimmerman, E. C. 1978. Insects of Hawaii, Volume 9, Microlepidoptera, Part 1. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii, 881 pp.
Fig. 7: CABI, www.plantwise.org