CAPS Primary Target - AdultPort Interception Target - Larva
Lobesia botrana ([Denis & Schiffermuller]) (Tortricidae: Olethreutinae: Olethreutini)
Common names: European grape vine moth (EGVM) (preferred), grapevine moth, grape berry moth
Synonyms: flavosquamella (form), rosmarinana (Olindia), vitisana (Phalaena)
FWL: 4.5-8.0 mm
Adults are not sexually dimorphic, although females are generally larger than males. Forewing ground color is cream; the basal one-half of the wing, which is well differentiated by the inner edge of the median fascia, is overlaid with leaden gray, gray-brown, and pale-brown scales forming irregular patches and incomplete fasciae. The dark-brown median fascia is well defined basally, but irregular distally; the distal one-fourth of the wing is paler. The hindwing is whitish with a brown periphery in the male; it is almost complete brown in the female. Males lack a forewing costal fold.
Male genitalia are characterized by the following characters: socii short, lateral, with small tufts of setae; uncus, gnathos, and transtilla absent; valvae long and narrow with row of spines on the ventral magin; cucullus densely setose, separated from sacculus with a distinct gap in the marginal spines; sacculus weakly concave postmedially; aedeagus small; cornuti absent. Female genitalia are characterized by a long, slender ductus bursae that is undifferentiated from the corpus bursae and an elongate signum.
Lobesia botrana is similar in size and wing pattern to many Nearctic Paralobesia, specifically Paralobesia viteana, which is a pest of grapes in eastern North America. Adults of P. viteana and L. botrana cannot be separated by wing pattern; however, the two species are easily separated by genitalia: P. viteana has a sclerotized lobe projecting from the base of the male cucullus that is absent in all other Nearctic olethreutines, and the female lacks a signum in the corpus bursae. Paralobesia viteana is not present in California, but at least three species of Paralobesia have been recorded from the West Coast (see Gilligan et al. 2011).
Other grape pests in California include: Platynota stultana (omnivorous leafroller - Tortricidae), Argyrotaenia franciscana (orange tortrix - Tortricidae), Epiphyas postvittana (light brown apple moth - Tortricidae), Desmia funeralis (grape leaffolder - Crambidae), and Harrisina brillians (western grapeleaf skeletonizer - Zygaenidae). All of these species are easily distinguished from Lobesia botrana based on wing pattern and genitalic structure. In addition, larvae of Desmia funeralis and Harrisina brillians feed primarliy on foliage and are unlikely to be found in fruit.
First instar larvae are yellowish green and approximately 1.0 mm in length. The head is black to dark brown, and the paler prothoracic shield is concolorous with the rest of the body. Last instar larvae are 10-15 mm long and vary in color from light yellowish green to pale brown. The head is brown to light yellowish brown to honey colored, the antennae and thoracic legs are brown to black, and the prothoracic shield is variably shaded with dark brown to black on the posterior and lateral margins. All instars have a dark stemmatal area and genal dash.
Other diagnostic larval characters include: L-pinaculum on T1 horizontal, not extending beneath spiracle; SV groups on A1, 2, 7, 8, 9 with 3:3:3:2:2 setae; SD2 on A1-8 absent; distance between V setae on A9 approximately 1.5-2.03 the distance between V setae on A8; distance between D1 setae on anal shield equal to the distance between D1 and SD1; anal comb with 5-8 teeth; mandibles without inner teeth or a retinaculum.
No morphological characters have been identified to reliably separate the larvae of Paralobesia and Lobesia. Should Paralobesia viteana be introduced to the West Coast, or L. botrana expand out of California, molecular diagnostics may be required to identify larvae of Paralobesia/Lobesia found on grape.
Lobesia botrana typically completes three generations in southern Europe, although the number can vary from a single generation in northern Europe to up to five generations in Central Asia.
Females lay approximately 35 eggs per day, either in groups of 2 or 3 on the buds, pedicels, and flowers, or singly on berries later in the season. Eggs hatch in 3-10 days; egg development is dependent on temperature and humidity. Larvae complete five instars, with first generation larvae feeding on flowers and buds, second generation larvae feeding within single grape berries, and third and subsequent generation larvae feeding on several grape berries. Non-diapausing moths (usually first and second generations) pupate in rolled leaves or inflorescences tied with silk. Diapausing individuals pupate under bark, in the soil, or under leaf litter, and emerge the following spring.
Damage is caused by larvae feeding on reproductive structures, resulting in yield loss, or by direct injury to grape berries. Secondary infection of larval feeding sites on grapes by fungus (Botrytis cinerea) causes the most significant damage.
The preferred host is Vitis vinifera (wine grape) and L. botrana is one of the most important pests of grape in the Palearctic. However, larvae are polyphagous and have been recorded feeding on more than 40 species of plants in approximately 20 families.
|Family ||Genus/species ||Common name|
|Actinidiaceae ||Actinidia chinensis Planch. ||kiwi|
|Araliaceae ||Hedera helix L. ||English ivy|
|Asteraceae ||Tanacetum vulgare L. ||common tansy|
|Berberidaceae ||Berberis vulgaris L. ||common barberry|
|Caprifoliaceae ||Lonicera tatarica L. ||Tatarian honeysuckle|
|Caprifoliaceae ||Viburnum lantana L. ||wayfaringtree|
|Caryophyllaceae ||Dianthus L. ||carnation|
|Cornaceae ||Cornus mas L. ||Cornelian cherry|
|Cornaceae ||Cornus sanguinea L. ||bloodtwig dogwood|
|Cornaceae ||Cornus L. ||dogwood|
|Ebenaceae ||Diospyros kaki L. f. ||Japanese persimmon|
|Ebenaceae ||Diospyros virginiana L. ||common persimmon|
|Ericaceae ||Arbutus unedo L. ||strawberry tree|
|Grossulariaceae ||Ribes nigrum L. ||European black currant|
|Grossulariaceae ||Ribes rubrum L. ||cultivated currant|
|Grossulariaceae ||Ribes uva-crispa L. ||European gooseberry|
|Lamiaceae ||Rosmarinus officinalis L. ||rosemary|
|Liliaceae ||Urginea maritima (L.) Baker ||red squill|
|Menispermaceae ||Menispermum canadense L. ||common moonseed|
|Oleaceae ||Ligustrum vulgare L. ||European privet|
|Oleaceae ||Olea europaea L. ||olive|
|Oleaceae ||Syringa vulgaris L. ||common lilac|
|Punicaceae ||Punica granatum L. ||pomegranate|
|Ranunculaceae ||Clematis vitalba L. ||evergreen clematis|
|Rhamnaceae ||Ziziphus jujuba (L.) Karst. ||common jujube|
|Rosaceae ||Malus pumila Mill. ||apple|
|Rosaceae ||Prunus avium (L.) L. ||sweet cherry|
|Rosaceae ||Prunus domestica L. ||European plum|
|Rosaceae ||Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb ||sweet almond|
|Rosaceae ||Prunus persica (L.) Batsch var. nucipersica (Suckow) C. K. Schneid. ||nectarine|
|Rosaceae ||Prunus salicina Lindl. ||Japanese plum|
|Rosaceae ||Prunus spinosa L. ||blackthorn|
|Rosaceae ||Pyrus communis L. ||common pear|
|Rosaceae ||Rubus caesius L. ||European dewberry|
|Rosaceae ||Rubus fruticosus L. ||shrubby blackberry|
|Rosaceae ||Rubus L. ||raspberry|
|Thymeleaceae ||Daphne gnidium L. ||flax-leaved daphne|
|Thymeleaceae ||Thymelaea hirsuta (L.) Endl. ||thymelaea|
|Vitaceae ||Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. ||Virginia creeper|
|Vitaceae ||Vitis vinifera L. ||wine grape|
Lobesia botrana is widely distributed in Europe, Central Asia, and parts of Africa. It has been recently discovered in Argentina, Chile, and California.
Bradley, J. D., W. G. Tremewan and A. Smith. 1979. British Tortricoid Moths - Tortricidae: Olethreutinae. The Ray Society, London, England. 336 pp.
Gilligan, T. M., M. E. Epstein, S. C. Passoa, J. A. Powell, O. C. Sage and J. W. Brown. 2011. Discovery of Lobesia botrana ([Denis & Schiffermuller]) in California: an invasive species new to North America (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 113(1): 14-30.
Roehrich, R. and E. Boller. 1991. Tortricids in vineyards, pp. 507-514. In L. P. S. van der Geest and H. H. Evenhius [eds.], Tortricid Pests: Their Biology, Natural Enemies, and Control. World Crop Pests, Vol. 5. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Torres-Vila, L. M., J. Stockel and R. Roehrich R. 1995. The reproductive potential and associated biotic variables in the male of the European vine moth Lobesia botrana. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 77: 105-119.
Venette, R. C., E. E. Davis, M. DaCosta, H. Heisler and M. Larson. 2003. Mini risk assessment: grape berry moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermuller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). USDA - CAPS Pest Risk Assessment.
Tortricids of Agricultural Importance by Todd M. Gilligan and Marc E. Epstein
Interactive Keys developed in Lucid 3.4. Last updated April 2012.