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CAPS Primary Target - Adult
Port Interception Target - Larva

Lobesia botrana ([Denis & Schiffermuller]) (Tortricidae: Olethreutinae: Olethreutini)

Common names: European grape vine moth (EGVM) (preferred), grapevine moth, grape berry moth

Synonyms: flavosquamella (form), rosmarinana (Olindia), vitisana (Phalaena)

Fig. 1: Male

Fig. 1: Male

Fig. 2: Male

Fig. 2: Male

Fig. 3: Male

Fig. 3: Male

Fig. 4: Male genitalia

Fig. 4: Male genitalia

Fig. 5: Female genitalia

Fig. 5: Female genitalia

Fig. 6: Egg on grape

Fig. 6: Egg on grape

Fig. 7: Larva

Fig. 7: Larva

Fig. 8: Larva

Fig. 8: Larva

Fig. 9: Larva

Fig. 9: Larva

Fig. 10: Pupa and cocoon

Fig. 10: Pupa and cocoon

Fig. 11: Adults in sticky trap

Fig. 11: Adults in sticky trap

Fig. 12: Adult in sticky trap

Fig. 12: Adult in sticky trap

Adult Recognition

FWL: 4.5-8.0 mm

Adults are not sexually dimorphic, although females are generally larger than males. Forewing ground color is cream; the basal one-half of the wing, which is well differentiated by the inner edge of the median fascia, is overlaid with leaden gray, gray-brown, and pale-brown scales forming irregular patches and incomplete fasciae. The dark-brown median fascia is well defined basally, but irregular distally; the distal one-fourth of the wing is paler. The hindwing is whitish with a brown periphery in the male; it is almost complete brown in the female. Males lack a forewing costal fold.

Male genitalia are characterized by the following characters: socii short, lateral, with small tufts of setae; uncus, gnathos, and transtilla absent; valvae long and narrow with row of spines on the ventral magin; cucullus densely setose, separated from sacculus with a distinct gap in the marginal spines; sacculus weakly concave postmedially; aedeagus small; cornuti absent. Female genitalia are characterized by a long, slender ductus bursae that is undifferentiated from the corpus bursae and an elongate signum.

Lobesia botrana is similar in size and wing pattern to many Nearctic Paralobesia, specifically Paralobesia viteana, which is a pest of grapes in eastern North America. Adults of P. viteana and L. botrana cannot be separated by wing pattern; however, the two species are easily separated by genitalia: P. viteana has a sclerotized lobe projecting from the base of the male cucullus that is absent in all other Nearctic olethreutines, and the female lacks a signum in the corpus bursae. Paralobesia viteana is not present in California, but at least three species of Paralobesia have been recorded from the West Coast (see Gilligan et al. 2011).

Other grape pests in California include: Platynota stultana (omnivorous leafroller - Tortricidae), Argyrotaenia franciscana (orange tortrix - Tortricidae), Epiphyas postvittana (light brown apple moth - Tortricidae), Desmia funeralis (grape leaffolder - Crambidae), and Harrisina brillians (western grapeleaf skeletonizer - Zygaenidae). All of these species are easily distinguished from Lobesia botrana based on wing pattern and genitalic structure. In addition, larvae of Desmia funeralis and Harrisina brillians feed primarliy on foliage and are unlikely to be found in fruit.

Larval Morphology

First instar larvae are yellowish green and approximately 1.0 mm in length. The head is black to dark brown, and the paler prothoracic shield is concolorous with the rest of the body. Last instar larvae are 10-15 mm long and vary in color from light yellowish green to pale brown. The head is brown to light yellowish brown to honey colored, the antennae and thoracic legs are brown to black, and the prothoracic shield is variably shaded with dark brown to black on the posterior and lateral margins. All instars have a dark stemmatal area and genal dash.

Other diagnostic larval characters include: L-pinaculum on T1 horizontal, not extending beneath spiracle; SV groups on A1, 2, 7, 8, 9 with 3:3:3:2:2 setae; SD2 on A1-8 absent; distance between V setae on A9 approximately 1.5-2.03 the distance between V setae on A8; distance between D1 setae on anal shield equal to the distance between D1 and SD1; anal comb with 5-8 teeth; mandibles without inner teeth or a retinaculum.

No morphological characters have been identified to reliably separate the larvae of Paralobesia and Lobesia. Should Paralobesia viteana be introduced to the West Coast, or L. botrana expand out of California, molecular diagnostics may be required to identify larvae of Paralobesia/Lobesia found on grape.

Biology

Lobesia botrana typically completes three generations in southern Europe, although the number can vary from a single generation in northern Europe to up to five generations in Central Asia.

Females lay approximately 35 eggs per day, either in groups of 2 or 3 on the buds, pedicels, and flowers, or singly on berries later in the season. Eggs hatch in 3-10 days; egg development is dependent on temperature and humidity. Larvae complete five instars, with first generation larvae feeding on flowers and buds, second generation larvae feeding within single grape berries, and third and subsequent generation larvae feeding on several grape berries. Non-diapausing moths (usually first and second generations) pupate in rolled leaves or inflorescences tied with silk. Diapausing individuals pupate under bark, in the soil, or under leaf litter, and emerge the following spring.

Damage is caused by larvae feeding on reproductive structures, resulting in yield loss, or by direct injury to grape berries. Secondary infection of larval feeding sites on grapes by fungus (Botrytis cinerea) causes the most significant damage. 

Host plants

The preferred host is Vitis vinifera (wine grape) and L. botrana is one of the most important pests of grape in the Palearctic. However, larvae are polyphagous and have been recorded feeding on more than 40 species of plants in approximately 20 families.

Family Genus/species Common name
Actinidiaceae Actinidia chinensis Planch. kiwi
Araliaceae Hedera helix L. English ivy
Asteraceae Tanacetum vulgare L. common tansy
Berberidaceae Berberis vulgaris L. common barberry
Caprifoliaceae Lonicera tatarica L. Tatarian honeysuckle
Caprifoliaceae Viburnum lantana L. wayfaringtree
Caryophyllaceae Dianthus L. carnation
Cornaceae Cornus mas L. Cornelian cherry
Cornaceae Cornus sanguinea L. bloodtwig dogwood
Cornaceae Cornus L. dogwood
Ebenaceae Diospyros kaki L. f. Japanese persimmon
Ebenaceae Diospyros virginiana L. common persimmon
Ericaceae Arbutus unedo L. strawberry tree
Grossulariaceae Ribes nigrum L. European black currant
Grossulariaceae Ribes rubrum L. cultivated currant
Grossulariaceae Ribes uva-crispa L. European gooseberry
Lamiaceae Rosmarinus officinalis L. rosemary
Liliaceae Urginea maritima (L.) Baker red squill
Menispermaceae Menispermum canadense L. common moonseed
Oleaceae Ligustrum vulgare L. European privet
Oleaceae Olea europaea L. olive
Oleaceae Syringa vulgaris L. common lilac
Punicaceae Punica granatum L. pomegranate
Ranunculaceae Clematis vitalba L. evergreen clematis
Rhamnaceae Ziziphus jujuba (L.) Karst. common jujube
Rosaceae Malus pumila Mill. apple
Rosaceae Prunus avium (L.) L. sweet cherry
Rosaceae Prunus domestica L. European plum
Rosaceae Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb sweet almond
Rosaceae Prunus persica (L.) Batsch var. nucipersica (Suckow) C. K. Schneid. nectarine
Rosaceae Prunus salicina Lindl. Japanese plum
Rosaceae Prunus spinosa L. blackthorn
Rosaceae Pyrus communis L. common pear
Rosaceae Rubus caesius L. European dewberry
Rosaceae Rubus fruticosus L. shrubby blackberry
Rosaceae Rubus L. raspberry
Thymeleaceae Daphne gnidium L. flax-leaved daphne
Thymeleaceae Thymelaea hirsuta (L.) Endl. thymelaea
Vitaceae Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. Virginia creeper
Vitaceae Vitis vinifera L. wine grape

Distribution

Lobesia botrana is widely distributed in Europe, Central Asia, and parts of Africa. It has been recently discovered in Argentina, Chile, and California.

References

Bradley, J. D., W. G. Tremewan and A. Smith. 1979. British Tortricoid Moths - Tortricidae: Olethreutinae. The Ray Society, London, England. 336 pp.

Gilligan, T. M., M. E. Epstein, S. C. Passoa, J. A. Powell, O. C. Sage and J. W. Brown. 2011. Discovery of Lobesia botrana ([Denis & Schiffermuller]) in California: an invasive species new to North America (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 113(1): 14-30.

Roehrich, R. and E. Boller. 1991. Tortricids in vineyards, pp. 507-514.  In L. P. S. van der Geest and H. H. Evenhius [eds.], Tortricid Pests: Their Biology, Natural Enemies, and Control. World Crop Pests, Vol. 5. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Torres-Vila, L. M., J. Stockel and R. Roehrich R. 1995. The reproductive potential and associated biotic variables in the male of the European vine moth Lobesia botrana. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 77: 105-119.

Venette, R. C., E. E. Davis, M. DaCosta, H. Heisler and M. Larson. 2003. Mini risk assessment: grape berry moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermuller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). USDA - CAPS Pest Risk Assessment.

Tortricids of Agricultural Importance by Todd M. Gilligan and Marc E. Epstein
Interactive Keys developed in Lucid 3.4. Last updated April 2012.