FWL: 6.5-10.0 mm
Adults are yellow to reddish brown and generally unmarked. Some individuals may have a darker reddish-brown patch on the dorum near the tornus. Males lack a forewing costal fold.
Adults may appear similar to other yellow-brown, unmarked archipines. The genus Epichoristodes contains 15 described species; E. acerbella is the only species distributed outside of Africa.
Late instar larvae are green to yellowish green. The head and prothoracic shield are yellow brown and both may have extensive posterior shading or mottling. An anal comb is present with 6-9 teeth.
Other carnation/greenhouse pests present in Africa and Europe include Cacoecimorpha proubana. Larvae of C. pronubana have a set of distinctive dark-brown to black markings of the posterolateral corners of the prothoracic shield.
In southern Europe, E. acerbella completes four generations per year, with adults present May-September. More generations are possible in a greenhouse environment.
Females lay eggs on leaves in elongate masses of approximately 25 individual eggs. Larvae feed in rolled leaves, in flower buds, and on flower petals. Larvae may also feed on the surface of fruit or tunnel into stems. Pupation occurs in the final larval feeding site.
Larvae of E. acerbella are polyphagous and have been reported feeding on plants in more than a dozen families. This species is recognized as an important pest of carnations and other floricultural crops.
|Family ||Genus/species ||Common name|
|Asteraceae ||Aster L. ||aster|
|Asteraceae ||Chrysanthemum L. ||daisy|
|Asteraceae ||Erigeron L. ||fleabane|
|Asteraceae ||Gerbera J. F. Gmel. ||Transvaal daisy|
|Asteraceae ||Sonchus L. ||sowthistle|
|Caryophyllaceae ||[unspecified] |
|Caryophyllaceae ||Dianthus caryophyllus L. ||carnation|
|Caryophyllaceae ||Dianthus L. ||pink|
|Cucurbitaceae ||Cucurbita L. ||gourd|
|Fabaceae ||Medicago L. ||alfalfa|
|Liliaceae ||Ornithogalum L. ||star of Bethlehem|
|Liliaceae ||Ornithogalum thyrsoides Jacq. ||chinkerinchee|
|Myrtaceae ||Eucalyptus saligna Sm. ||Sydney bluegum|
|Polygonaceae ||Rumex L. ||dock|
|Rhamnaceae ||Rhamnus L. ||buckthorn|
|Rosaceae ||Fragaria L. ||strawberry|
|Rosaceae ||Prunus L. |
|Rosaceae ||Pyrus L. ||pear|
|Rosaceae ||Rosa L. ||rose|
|Rubiaceae ||Coffea L. ||coffee|
|Solanaceae ||Capsicum annuum L. ||cayenne pepper|
|Valerianaceae ||Centranthus ruber (L.) DC. ||red valerian|
A native of South Africa, E. acerbella is widely distributed in eastern and southern Africa. It was first reported in Europe (Italy) in the late 1960s, and it has been subsequently introduced to the following countries: Bulgaria, Croatia, France, Italy, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, and Spain.
Bradley, J. D., W. G. Tremewan and A. Smith. 1973. British Tortricoid Moths - Cochylidae and Tortricidae: Tortricinae. The Ray Society, London, England.
Crop Protection Compendium. 2007 Edition. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, 2007.
Glavendekic, M. 2006. Epichoristodes acerbella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): a new species in the fauna of Serbia. Acta Entomologica Serbica. 11: 77-81.
Timm, A. E., L. Warnich and H. Geertsema. 2008. Morphological and molecular identification of economically important Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) on deciduous fruit tree crops in South Africa. African Entomology. 16: 209-219.
Van de Vrie, M. 1991. Tortricids in ornamental crops in greenhouses, pp. 515-539. In: L. P. S. van der Geest, H. H. Evenhuis (eds.), Tortricid pests, their biology, natural enemies and control. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Figs. 6-7: Biologische Bundesanstalt fur Land-und Forstwirtschaft Archive, Biologische Bundesanstalt fur Land-und Forstwirtschaft, Bugwood.org