Phenacoccus hakeae Williams



Field characters

Body turns dark green in KOH solution.

Validation characters

Oral-rim tubular ducts present on dorsum, absent from venter; 18 pairs of cerarii; dorsomedial cerarius on segment VII; without denticle on claw; translucent pores present on coxa and tibia; antennae 8-segmented; without quinquelocular pores; anal bar present; oral-collar tubular ducts present laterad of anterior spiracle; dorsal setae conical; circulus absent.


Phenacoccus hakeae is unique among species of Phenacoccus, and it most likely does not belong in this genus. The unique combination of characters includes presence of oral-rim tubular ducts; lack of a denticle on the claw, quinquelocular pores, and 8-segmented antennae; presence of dorsomedial cerarius on segment VII; and presence of anal bar. Williams (1985) placed it in Phenacoccus because of the presence of dorsal conical setae and 18 pairs of cerarii.

U.S. quarantine notes

This species was intercepted at U. S. ports-of-entry 18 times between 1995 and 2012, with specimens originating from Australia, Israel, and The Netherlands. We also have examined specimens taken in quarantine from Australia (Leucodendron). ScaleNet lists only Proteaceae (Hakea sericea). It is most commonly collected on another genus of the family, Persoonia and also on Leptospermum (Myrtaceae). ScaleNet distribution records for P. hakeae include only New South Wales in Australia. Several species of Phenacoccus other than P. defectus Ferris,P. franseriae Ferris, P. gossypii Townsend & Cockerell, P. hakeae, P. helianthi (Cockerell), P. madeirensis Green, P. parvus Morrison, P. solani Ferris, P. solenopsis Tinsley and P. stelli (Brain) have been taken at U. S. ports-of-entry including: P. alleni McKenzie (Mexico, on Artemisia); P. avenae Borchsenius (Turkey, on Stachys); P. azaleae Kuwana (Japan, on azalea); P. graminicola Leonardi (New Zealand, on Feijoa); P. hurdi McKenzie (Mexico, on Dendranthema and Capsicum); P. indicus Avasthi & Shafee (Thailand, on Euphorbia); P. multicerarii Granara de Willink (Mexico, on unknown host); P. manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Central Africa and South America, on Manihot); P. nephelii Takahashi (Thailand, on Garcinia; Vietnam, on Nephelium); P. pergandei Cockerell (Japan and Korea, on Diospyros, Magnolia, Malus, Prunus, Punica, and Rhododendron); and P. persimplex Borchsenius (Kazakhstan, on Malus). This species was found in California in 2013 on Protea, Leucodendron, and Grevillea but it is not considered to be established.

Important references


Scalenet catalog and citation list

Click here for a Catalog.

  Phenacoccus hakeae  
 Illustration by Williams

Phenacoccus hakeae

Illustration by Williams

  Phenacoccus hakeae

Phenacoccus hakeae