Glossary

a

abdomen: the third and last segment of an insect's body; in sawflies this is usually made up of 11 segments (segments 9 and 10 often fused)

anal cell: cell A of either the forewing or hind wing

anepimeron: the dorsal protion of the mesepimeron

annulus: a ring wrapped around any structure; a division line on the lancet

antenna: the sensory organ emerging from the front of the head, usually between the compound eyes and above the clypeus; includes the flagellum, scape and pedicel

anterior: of or towards the front or head

anterodorsal: anterior of the dorsum

apex: the end or most distal area of any structure

apical: towards the apex; farthest away from the body

aposematic: having warning coloration, indicating that an insect is unpalatable or venemous or otherwise dangerous

b

basal: towards the base; closest to the body

base: the beginning or most proximal area of any structure

basitarsus: the basal tarsomere; also known as tarsomere 1

bidentate: having two teeth; often used in descrbing mandibles or tarsal claws

bifid: divided or forked into two branches or parts

bipectinate: describing pectinate antennae of which each segment has two projections, one on either side

bivoltine: describing a life cycle with two generations per calendar year

c

carina: a ridge or raised edge

cell: a membranous area of the wing between veins

cenchrus: a sclerotized eliptical lobe on the metascutum used to provide friction with underside of wings to hold them in place on the dorsum of the body while in rest

cercus: structures emerging posterolaterally from the apex of the abdomen

clavate: club-like, thickening toward the tip; often used to describe antennae

clypeus: sclerotized area on the front of the head located between the antennal insertions and labrum

concave: describing an inward curving surface, opposite of convex

conifer: a usually evergreen tree characterized by reproductive cones; e.g., pine, fir, spruce, larch, etc.

coniferous: describing a conifer

convex: describing an outward curving surface, opposite of concave

cornus: a pointed horn-like process on the apical end of the abdomen in Siricidae sawflies; on tergite 10 in females, sternite 9 in males

costa: The robust vein on the anterior margin of the wing; vein C

coxa: the first and most basal segment of the leg

d

deciduous: describing a tree that drops its foliage once a year and then re-grows it; often senescence occurs before winter and re-growth occurs in the spring

defoliate: to elimate a sizeable portion of the foliage of a tree, either by feeding on the leaves or otherwise causing a severe decreae in photosynthetic ability

defoliator: an insect that defoliates

diapause: a non-active period of no development; sawflies often enter diapause as a prepupa or pupa to overwinter

dimorphic: having two forms, usually in the context of taxon with different male and female morphology

distal: furthest from the body, opposite of proximal

distitarsus: the apical tarsomere

dorsal: of or on the top surface of the body or structure

dunnage: material, often wood shavings, used as packing or padding in shipping

e

emarginate: notched at the margin

endemic: both native and unique to a particular region

episternum: the anterior part of the thoracic pleuron

extant: in existence; opposite of extinct

f

fecund: describing an organism with high fecundity

fecundity: ability to produce a high number of offspring; potential reproductive abundance

femur: the third segment of the leg between the trochanter and the tibia

filiform: threadlike; slender and of even diameter

flagellomere: A segment of the flagellum of the antenna

flagellum: the third section of the antennae that includes all the segments beyond the pedicel; segments of the flagellum are known as flagellomeres

fore coxa: the coxa of the fore leg

fore femur: the femur of the fore leg

fore leg: the first and anterior-most leg of the body

fore tarsus: the tarsus of the fore leg

fore tibia: the tibia of the fore leg

forewing: the anterior wing of each pair of wings; usually the largest wing of the pair

frass: solid larval excrement

frons: the sclerotized anterodorsal part of the head

furcate: divided into branches; forked

furrow: a groove or linear depression

g

gena: the area of the head between the compound eye and clypeus; also called the cheek

gonostipe: a sclerite on the male genitalia located at the base of the harpes.

gregarious: describing insects in large groups or aggregations

h

harpes: structure emerging posterolaterally from the external male genitalia

hemolymph: the "blood" of an insect, a fluid plasma containing nucleated cells

herbaceous: describing a plant that does not have a woody stem and is often close to the ground; e.g., grasses, forbs, and vegetable plants

hind leg: the third and posterior-most leg

hind wing: the posterior wing of each pair of wings

Holarctic: describing the region of the Northern Hemisphere that includes both the Nearctic and Palearctic regions

holotype: the specimen designated as the type species or type subspecies

hyaline: transparent; glassy

i

instar: a stage of development between molts in insects; often is a larval stage

integument: the epidermis and cuticle of the exoskeleton surface

k

katepimeron: ventral section of the mesepimeron

l

labial palpus: appendage emerging laterally from the labium

labrum: a sclerotized structure on the front of the head between the clypeus and mandibles

lance: the dorsal portion of the ovipositor; paired but fused into one

lancet: the ventral portion of the ovipositor; paired

larva: the immature stage of holometabolous insects

lateral: of or towards the side of the body

m

malar space: the minimum distance between the base of the mandible and the ventral margin of the compound eye

mandible: the primary mouthpart used for biting and chewing; jaw

maxillary palpus: appendage emerging laterally from the maxilla; often segmented

mesepimeron: the dorsal portion of the mesopleuron, located under the wing

mesepisternum: the ventral portion of the mesopleuron, located between the forecoxae and mid coxae

meson: midline of the body

mesonotum: the second segment of the dorsum of the thorax

mesopleuron: the central lateral part of the thorax, includes the mesepisternum and mesepimeron

mesoscutellar appendage: the rounded, central dorsal appendage emerging posteriorly form the mesoscutellum

mesoscutellum: the anterior section of the scutellum

mesoscutum: the central and dorsal portion of the thorax between the scutellum and postnotum

metanotum: the last segment of the dorsum of the thorax

metapleuron: the posterior lateral part of the thorax including the metepimeron and metepisternum

metascutellum: the posterior section of the scutellum; encloses the cenchri

metepimeron: the dorsal portion of the metapleuron

metepisternum: the ventral portion of the metapleuron

mid leg: the second and middle leg between the fore leg and hind leg

monophyletic: describing a group of all known descendents arising from a common ancestor

multivoltine: describing a life cycle with many generations per calendar year

n

Nearctic: describing the region of the Northern Hemisphere that includes North America south through northern Mexico

Neotropical: Describing the region of the Western Hemisphere that is tropical, ie. between 30°N and 30°S of the equator; includes southern Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean and South America

New World: the Western Hemisphere; the continents of North and South America

notaulus: one of a pair of diverging furrows on the mesoscutum

notum: the dorsum of the thorax above pleural region; separated into pronotum, mesonotum and metanotum

o

occiput: the posterior surface of the head

ocellar basin: the concave area medial between the frons and vertex where the ocelli, if present, are located

ocellar corona: a ring of raised bumps surrounding the center ocellus; present on sawflies of the family Orussida

ocellus: a simple bead-like eye, often on the dorsum of the head in groups of 1-3

oculata: narrow sclerotized area surrounding the compound eye

Old World: The Eastern Hemisphere; the continents of Asia, Australia, Africa and Europe

ovipositor: the female organ that deposits eggs and is used to drill into plant tissue, located at the apex of the abdomen, made up of the lance and lancet

p

Palearctic: describing the region of the northern hemisphere that includes Europe, Asia south to the Himalayas and northern Africa

palpomere: a segment of a palp

palpus: jointed structures emerging from the labium and maxilla

paraphyletic: describing a group with members arising from a common ancestor, but not including all of the known descendants of that ancestor

pectinate: comb-like in form

pedicel: the second antennal segment, between the scape and flagellum

penis valve: paired structure emerging from the apex of the male genitalia

phylogeny: evolutionary history of a group of organisms

phytophagous: feeding on plants

phytotoxic: toxic to plants; poisons and sometimes kills plant tissue

polyphyletic: describing a group with members arising from different phylogenies, not sharing a common ancestor

postgenal: located posterior to the gena; of the postgena

postocellar area: the dorsal portion of the head located between the occiput and ocelli

preapical: close to, but anterior to, the apex

prepupa: the active, non-feeding life stage in which the larva prepares to enter the pupal stage

proleg: in a larva, the paired leg-like appendages of the abdomen that assist in movement; the “legs” beyond the 3 pairs of thoracic legs on a larval body

pronotum: the anterodorsal part of the thorax, often situated posterior to the head

propleuron: a lateral sclerite located between the pronotum and episternum near the anterior of the body

proximal: nearest to body, opposite of distal

pubescent: describing a surface with short, dense hairs

pulvillus: soft pads used for surface adhesion, located in sawflies on the first 4 segments of the tarsus

punctate: covered with many small punctures, holes or pits

pupa: the intermediate and inactive life stage of holometabolous insects, between larva and adult

q

quadrate: square-like or cube-like in shape

r

radial cell: A cell on the wing located in the radial sector on the apical half of the wing; also known as 1R1, 1Rs, 2Rs, 3Rs

rufous: red; reddish

s

saw: ovipositor

scape: the first antennal segment

sclerotized: hardened, rigid

scutellum: a central part of the notum, located between the scutum and postnotum

scutum: the central part of the notum located anterior to the scutellum, divided into two parts

serrate: toothed; often describing the ovipositor saw or antennae

serrula: serrations along the teeth of the ovipositor saw

sessile: attached directly; describing the broad and complete connection of the thorax to abdomen; opposite of petiolate

seta: hair-like structure

setaceous: bristle-like in form

sheath: structure that encloses the ovipositor, emerging from apex of the abdomen

spatulate: spoon-shaped; slender at the base and widened and rounded at the apex

speciose: describing a taxon that includes a high number of species

spiracle: an external opening to the respiratory system of an insect; appears as a pore or small hole

sternite: a sclerotized segment of the abdominal sternum

sternum: the ventral area of the thorax or abdomen

stigma: a section of the forewing at the apex of vein C that is sclerotized, rounded and often darkened

submarginal cell: A cell on the wing located below the anterior margin and surrounding the stigma on the apical side of the wing; also known as 2R1, 3R1, 4R1

subsocial: Living in aggregations but lacking organizational structure as in true social insects; can describes insects with tendencies to protect or care for thier young, feed gregariously, and build cocoon masses.

suture: a marked line where two plates are fused

sympatry: the occurrence of two or more populations sharing the same geographic area and coming into contact frequently

t

tarsal claw: sharpened appendage emerging from the apex of the tarsus

tarsomere: a segment of the tarsus

tarsus: the fifth and last segment of the leg

tegula: a thin, plate-like structure emerging from the base of the forewing

tergite: a sclerotized segment of the tergum

tergum: the dorsal area of the abdomen

thoracic: of or on the thorax

thorax: the second and middle segment of the body, between the head and abdomen

tibia: the fourth segment of the leg, between the femur and the tarsus

trochanter: the second segment of the leg, between the coxa and femur

truncate: ending abruptly; cut off squarely; opposite of tapering

tubercle: a raised, round bump or protuberance

u

unipectinate: describing pectinate antennae of which each segment has a single projection

univoltine: describing an insect with a life cycle of one generation per year

v

vein: a tube-like, often darkened, structure on the wings

venation: the network of veins on a wing

ventral: of or on the underside of the body or structure

vertex: the dorsal portion of the head between the compound eyes, between the occiput and frons