Scolioneura

Taxonomy

Family: Tenthredinidae
Family common name: common sawflies
Subfamily: Heterarthrinae
Tribe: Fenusini
Genus: Scolioneura Konow, 1890
Subgenera: none

Background

The Tenthredinidae are the most species-rich family and are found throughout the world, in all continents but Antarctica. They are known as the “common sawflies.” They can generally be recognized by a cylindrical body and long, segmented antennae. Otherwise, they come in a variety of colors, sizes, and forms (Goulet 1992).

Sawflies in the Heterarthrinae subfamily are generally small and dark-colored. Many species of this family are economic pests of trees and shrubs and can be characterized by their skeletonizing or leaf-mining larval feeding behaviors. Heterarthrinae adults can be distinguished from those of other subfamilies by wing venation (Smith 1971a).

Scolioneura are small, mostly black sawflies with a distinctive head structure, including an occipital ridge and large median ocellar area (Goulet 2017). The Fenusini tribe are all leaf miners (Goulet 1992).

Diversity

There are seven described extant species worldwide. Three species occur in North America (Taeger et al. 2018).

A key to Nearctic females is included in Goulet 2017.

Diagnostic characteristics

Subfamily characters

Genus characters​

May be confused with

Scolioneura can be confused with other genera in the subfamily. It can be distinguished by markedly longer flagellomeres and the presence of the occipital ridge (Goulet 1992).

Exotic pest species of concern

none

Host associations

Scolioneura vicinia feeds on Betula (birch) (Goulet 1992), and S. vaccinii feeds on Vaccinium parviflorum (red huckleberry) and Vaccinium membranaceum (thinleaf huckleberry). Rhododendron menziesii is a possible host of S. smithi (Goulet 2017).

Life history

The specific biology of Scolioneura is unknown. Larvae are leaf miners that create blotch mines (Smith et al. 2015).

Distribution

World: This genus is known from North America, Central and Eastern Europe, Iran, and China (Taeger et al. 2018).

North America: Scolioneura occurs in Canada from Ontario west to British Columbia, and in Washington State (Goulet 2017).

Map data from: GBIF.org (29 October 2019) GBIF Occurrence Download Scolioneura

Details about data used for maps can be found here.

Scolioneura betuleti male lateral habitus; photo by J. Orr, WSDA

Scolioneura betuleti male lateral habitus; photo by J. Orr, WSDA

Scolioneura betuleti male dorsal habitus; photo by J. Orr, WSDA

Scolioneura betuleti male dorsal habitus; photo by J. Orr, WSDA

Scolioneura betuleti male face; photo by Q. Baine, WSDA

Scolioneura betuleti male face; photo by Q. Baine, WSDA

Scolioneura betuleti wings; photo by J. Orr, WSDA

Scolioneura betuleti wings; photo by J. Orr, WSDA