Monophadnoides

Taxonomy

Family: Tenthredinidae
Family common name: common sawflies
Subfamily: Blennocampinae
Tribe: Blennocampini
Genus: Monophadnoides Ashmead, 1898
Subgenera: none

Background

The Tenthredinidae are the most species-rich family and are found throughout the world, in all continents but Antarctica. They are known as the “common sawflies.” They can generally be recognized by a cylindrical body and long, segmented antennae. Otherwise, they come in a variety of colors, sizes, and forms (Goulet 1992).

Sawflies in the subfamily Blennocampinae have a diverse set of life histories and habits. Many species are restricted to subtropical and tropical regions, but the genus is still fairly species-rich in North America. Blennocampinae includes many sawflies that feed on ornamental and forestry crops. This subfamily can be recognized by wing venation and bidentate mandibles (Smith 1969d).

Monophadnoides is monotypic in North America. Monophadnoides rubi, the raspberry sawfly, is mostly black with red and yellow markings (Vaughan and Rosenstiel 1949, Smith 1969d).

Diversity

There are 10 described extant species worldwide. One species occurs in North America (Taeger et al. 2018).

The monograph for Blennocampinae (Smith 1969d) synonymizes Monophadnoides and Claremontia. The two genera have since been separated, and the only Nearctic species to remain in Monophadnoides is M. rubi (Taeger et al. 2010, Smith pers. comm. 2020).

Diagnostic characteristics

Subfamily characters

Genus characters

May be confused with

Monophadnoides can be confused with similar species in the subfamily Blennocampinae. It can be distinguished from Periclista by the fore wing veins 2A and 3A and by a lack of membranous area on the anepimeron, from Monophadnus by the lack of a divide on the katepimeron, and from Claremontia by the relative length of the third and fourth antennal segments and the lack of a tarsal claw basal lobe (Smith 1969d). Claremontia is also characterized by a postocular furrow which is not present in Monophadnoides (Smith 2015).

Exotic pest species of concern

none

Host associations

In North America, Monophadnoides feeds on Rubus (cane berry) (Goulet 1992). Monophadnoides rubi demonstrates a preference for Rubus idaeus (raspberry) (Vaughan and Rosenstiel 1949).

Life history

Monophadnoides rubi is commonly known as the raspberry sawfly because of its notoriety as a pest on raspberry plants. Females oviposit into the tissue of the leaves. Emerged larvae feed on the underside of the leaf, making small round holes. As the larvae mature, they feed on the entire leaf. Larvae are light green in color with several fleshy spines. At maturity, they fall to the ground and overwinter in the soil (Vaughan and Rosenstiel 1949).

Distribution

World: This genus is Holarctic, found in North America, Europe, through Asia to China, Korea, and Japan (Smith and Wei 2015, Taeger et al. 2018).

North America: Monophadnoides rubi occurs throughout the United States, as far south as Texas and Georgia, and in southern Canada (Smith 1969d).

Map data from: GBIF.org (29 October 2019) GBIF Occurrence Download Monophadnoides

Details about data used for maps can be found here.

Monophadnoides sp. female lateral habitus; photo by Q. Baine, WSDA

Monophadnoides sp. female lateral habitus; photo by Q. Baine, WSDA

Monophadnoides rubi female dorsal habitus; photo by J. Orr, WSDA

Monophadnoides rubi female dorsal habitus; photo by J. Orr, WSDA

Monophadnoides rubi male lateral habitus; photo by J. Orr, WSDA

Monophadnoides rubi male lateral habitus; photo by J. Orr, WSDA

Monophadnoides sp. male dorsal habitus; photo by Q. Baine, WSDA

Monophadnoides sp. male dorsal habitus; photo by Q. Baine, WSDA

Monophadnoides rubi male face; photo by Q. Baine, WSDA

Monophadnoides rubi male face; photo by Q. Baine, WSDA

Monophadnoides rubi wings; photo by P. Jones, WSDA

Monophadnoides rubi wings; photo by P. Jones, WSDA