Monardis

Taxonomy

Family: Tenthredinidae
Family common name: common sawflies
Subfamily: Blennocampinae
Tribe: Blennocampini
Genus: Monardis Enslin, 1914
Subgenera: none

Background

The Tenthredinidae are the most species-rich family and are found throughout the world, in all continents but Antarctica. They are known as the “common sawflies.” They can generally be recognized by a cylindrical body and long, segmented antennae. Otherwise, they come in a variety of colors, sizes, and forms (Goulet 1992).

Sawflies in the subfamily Blennocampinae have a diverse set of life histories and habits. Many species are restricted to subtropical and tropical regions, but the genus is still fairly species-rich in North America. Blennocampinae includes many sawflies that feed on ornamental and forestry crops. This subfamily can be recognized by wing venation and bidentate mandibles (Smith 1969d).

Monardis is monotypic in North America. The female Monardis pulla is medium-sized, about 6.5 mm in length, and entirely black with light-colored striping on the legs and darkened wings. The male for this species is not known (Smith 1969d).

Diversity

There are eight described extant species worldwide. One species occurs in North America (Taeger et al. 2018).

Diagnostic characteristics

Subfamily characters

Genus characters

May be confused with

Monardis can be confused with similar species in the subfamily Blennocampinae. It can be distinguished from most other genera by the simple tarsal claw, presence of hind wing cell M, and absence of a postocular furrow (Smith 1969d).

Exotic pest species of concern

Monardis plana, known as the rose bud sawfly, is a minor pest of roses in Europe. The larvae hollow out the immature buds and bore into the stems of the host and feed on the young leaves, resulting in reduced bloom (Scheibelreiter 1972, Gibbs 2006). One documented host, Rosa canina (dog rose), is also present growing wild in North America (Pavek and Skinner 2013).

Host associations

unknown

Life history

The specific biology of Monardis pulla is unknown. One M. pulla in Oregon was recorded emerging from a pupal cell built into the wall of a wasp-induced rose gall (Baine and Looney 2019).

Distribution

World: This genus is known from North America, Central and Eastern Europe, Uzbekistan, China, and Japan (Taeger et al. 2018).

North America: Monardis pulla occurs throughout the Rocky Mountain region, in Utah, Colorado, Montana, and Alberta west to British Columbia and Oregon (Smith 1969d, Baine and Looney 2019).

Map data from: GBIF.org (29 October 2019) GBIF Occurrence Download Monardis and the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History Entomology Collection (USNM)

Details about data used for maps can be found here.

Monardis pulla female lateral habitus; photo by J. Orr, WSDA

Monardis pulla female lateral habitus; photo by J. Orr, WSDA

Monardis pulla female dorsal habitus; photo by J. Orr, WSDA

Monardis pulla female dorsal habitus; photo by J. Orr, WSDA

Monardis pulla female face; photo by Q. Baine, WSDA

Monardis pulla female face; photo by Q. Baine, WSDA

Monardis pulla male lateral habitus; photo by J. Orr, WSDA

Monardis pulla male lateral habitus; photo by J. Orr, WSDA

Monardis pulla male face; photo by Q. Baine, WSDA

Monardis pulla male face; photo by Q. Baine, WSDA

Monardis pulla fore wing; photo by J. Orr, WSDA

Monardis pulla fore wing; photo by J. Orr, WSDA