Endelomyia

Taxonomy

Family: Tenthredinidae
Family common name: common sawflies
Subfamily: Heterarthrinae
Tribe: Caliroini
Genus: Endelomyia Ashmead, 1898
Subgenera: none

Background

The Tenthredinidae are the most species-rich family and are found throughout the world, in all continents but Antarctica. They are known as the “common sawflies.” They can generally be recognized by a cylindrical body and long, segmented antennae. Otherwise, they come in a variety of colors, sizes, and forms (Goulet 1992).

Sawflies in the Heterarthrinae subfamily are generally small and dark-colored. Many species of this family are economic pests of trees and shrubs and can be characterized by their skeletonizing or leaf-mining larval feeding behaviors. Heterarthrinae adults can be distinguished from those of other subfamilies by wing venation (Smith 1971a).

Endelomyia is monotypic in North America. Endelomyia aethiops is small, about 4.5 mm in length, and entirely dark-colored with white striping on the legs and slightly darkened wings (Smith 1971a). Unlike other genera in the subfamily, Caliroa and Endelomyia are external leaf feeders and not leaf miners (Goulet 1992).

Diversity

There are three described extant species. One species occurs in North America (Taeger et al. 2010).

Diagnostic characteristics

Subfamily characters

Genus characters

May be confused with

Endelomyia can be easily distinguished from other genera in the subfamily by the complete anal cell with crossvein, number of antennal segments, and narrow malar space (Goulet 1992). It can be confused with similar genus Caliroa, but is distinguished by the apical flagellomeres (Smith 1967c).

Exotic pest species of concern

none

Host associations

Endelomyia aethiops in North America feeds on species of Rosa (rose) (Goulet 1992).

Life history

Females oviposit into the edge of the leaf (Smith 1971a). Larvae feed on the underside of the leaf on the inter-vein tissue, skeletonizing the leaf. At maturity, the larvae drop to the ground to overwinter. The species is univoltine (Miles 1935). Endelomyia aethiops is an introduced species that has become a pest known as the roseslug, as it causes damage to ornamental roses (Stroom et al. 1997). Though its common name includes “slug,” the larvae do not have an associated slime and shine like similar species Caliroa cerasi (Smith 1967c). It is also a pest in its native range and considered one of the most harmful insects of all rose pests (Gorlenko et al. 1984).

Distribution

World: This genus is represented in North America, France, central and eastern Europe, and China (Liston et al. 2006, Wei et al. 2006, Taeger et al. 2010)

North America: Endelomyia aethiops was introduced from Europe. It was first discovered in North America in the 1840s and is now widespread in the United States and southern Canada (Smith 1971a).

Map data from: GBIF.org (29 October 2019) GBIF Occurrence Download Endelomyia

Details about data used for maps can be found here.

Endelomyia aethiops female lateral habitus; photo by J. Orr, WSDA

Endelomyia aethiops female lateral habitus; photo by J. Orr, WSDA

Endelomyia aethiops female dorsal habitus; photo by J. Orr, WSDA

Endelomyia aethiops female dorsal habitus; photo by J. Orr, WSDA

Endelomyia aethiops female face; photo by Q. Baine, WSDA

Endelomyia aethiops female face; photo by Q. Baine, WSDA

Endelomyia aethiops fore wing; photo by J. Orr, WSDA

Endelomyia aethiops fore wing; photo by J. Orr, WSDA