Name and publication
Phytophthora ramorum Werres, de Cock & Man in ’t Veld (2001)
Werres S, Marwitz R, Man in 't Veld WA, de Cock AWAM, Bonants PJM, de Weerdt M, Themann K, Ilieva E, and Baayen RP. 2001. Phytophthora ramorum sp. nov., a new pathogen on Rhododendron and Viburnum. Mycol. Res. 105: 1155–1165.
Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
from Werres et al. (2001)
"ramus", branch: referring to the pathogenicity to twigs and branches
Type: GERMANY, Niedersachsen, isolated from Rhododendron catawbiense ‘Grandiorum’ collected in a nursery by S. Werres during July 1995, BBA 9/95 (CBS 101553 - holotypus; BBA 9/95 - isotypus); herbarium number: CBS H-7707
Sequences for ex-type in original manuscript: Although in the original manuscript of Werres et al. (2001), CBS 101553 is shown in figures 5a (ITS1) and 5b (ITS2) (pg 1163), no accession numbers are indicated for the species in the referred manuscript.
Ex-type in other collections
BBA 9/95 = CBS 101553 = P10103 (WOC/WPC), CPHST BL 55G (Abad), Pr-164
Voucher sequences for barcoding genes (ITS rDNA and COI) of the ex-type (see Molecular protocols page)
Sequences for ex-type in other sources
- NCBI: Phytophthora ramorum CPHST BL 55G
- NCBI: Phytophthora ramorum P10103
- NCBI: Phytophthora ramorum CBS 101553
- Phytophthora Database: Phytophthora ramorum PD_00065 = P10103 (WPC)
- EPPO-Q-bank: Phytophthora ramorum CBS 101553
- BOLDSYSTEMS: Phytophthora ramorum (barcoding COI & ITS)
Position in ITS phylogenetic tree
adapted from Werres et al. (2001)
Colonies and cardinal temperatures
Colony morphology on PDA, V8, and MEA with non-distinct pattern. Minimum growth temperature 9°C, optimum 15–21°C, and maximum 27°C.
Conditions for growth and sporulation
Sporangia abundantly produced on agar as well as on plugs of culture media in soil extract. Sexual structures produced mostly in culture pairings with opposite types of other species (i.e. Phytophthora capsici, and Phytophthora cryptogea).
Sporangia semipapillate; caducous with short pedicels; ellipsoid, ovoid (22–71 L x 15–40 W µm) sometimes with tapered bases and with conspicuous basal plugs; originated in unbranched or in simple sympodial sporangiophores. Hyphal swellings absent. Irregular coralloid mycelia are observed. Chlamydospores globose, subglobose (24–58 µm diam), produced commonly terminal or intercalary and occasionally lateral.
Heterothallic. Oogonia smooth-walled, globose (23–38 µm diam) some with tapered bases; antheridia amphigynous, spherical, ovoid, club-shaped, sometimes with digitate projections; oospores plerotic to slightly aplerotic (20–33 µm diam).
Most typical characters
Additional specimen(s) evaluated
Phytophthora ramorum ex-type CPHST BL 55G, duplicate of P10103 (World Phytophthora Collection)
Hosts and distribution
Distribution: Europe, North America (Canada, USA: WA, OR, CA). It was recently introduced via nursery shipments from western states to many other states in the USA; strict quarantine restrictions have been implemented to combat its spread.
Substrate: twigs, branches
Disease note: an aggressive forest pathogen, cause of sudden oak death; originally described as a twig and branch blight of Rhododendron
Host: at least 26 genera in 17 families, including Rhododendron spp. (Ericaceae) and Quercus spp. (Fagaceae)
Retrieved February 01, 2018 from U.S. National Fungus Collections Nomenclature Database.
Additional references and links
- Phytophthora DATABASE: Phytophthora ramorum
- EPPO-Q-bank: Phytophthora ramorum
- SMML USDA-ARS: Phytophthora ramorum
- EPPO Global Database: Phytophthora ramorum
- Forest Phytophthoras of the world: Phytophthora ramorum
- Forestry Commision UK: Phytophthora ramorum
- CABI Invasive Species Compendium: Phytophthora ramorum (sudden oak death) datasheets
- Encyclopedia of Life (EOL): Phytophthora ramorum
- Index Fungorum (IF): Phytophthora ramorum
- Plantwise Knowledge Bank: Phytophtora ramorum
- Google All Phytophthora ramorum
- Google Images Phytophthora ramorum
- Google Scholar Phytophthora ramorum
- Forestry Commision Scotland Phytophthora ramorum
- Forestry Commission Great Britain Phytophthora ramorum
- California Oak Mortality Task Force
- Phytophthora ramorum in OSU Phytophthora Online course: Training for Nursery Growers, Oregon State University
- APS: Sudden oak death and ramorum blight
Fact sheet author
Z. Gloria Abad, Ph.D., USDA-APHIS-PPQ-S&T Beltsville Laboratory, United States of America