Name and publication
Phytophthora quininea Crand. (1947)
Crandall BS. 1947. A new Phytophthora causing root and collar rot of Cinchona in Peru. Mycologia 39: 218–223.
from Crandall (1947)
The specific name is derived from the Spanish word for the cinchona tree, which was adapted from the original Quechua “quina-quina”. Two of the alkaloids extracted from the cinchona bark, “quinine” and “quinidine”, received their names from the same source.
Type: PERU, isolated from root and collar rot in a plantation tree of cinchona (Cinchonae officinalis) collected by Bowen S. Crandall, in Fundo Sinchono, 60 km. east from Tingo Maria (Pucallpa highway), on the upper headwaters of the Aguaytia River, Department of Loreto during 1947?; holotype isolate No: C-67 of the culture collection of the Department of Plant Pathology and Entomology of the “Estacion Experimental Agricola de Tingo Maria”
Ex-type: C-67 Crandall
Ex-type in other collections
Voucher sequences for barcoding genes (ITS rDNA and COI) of the ex-type (see Molecular protocols page)
Sequences for ex-type in other sources
- NCBI: Phytophthora quininea CPHST BL 54G
- NCBI: Phytophthora quininea P8488
- NCBI: Phytophthora quininea CBS 407.48
- Phytophthora Database: Phytophthora quininea PD_02107 (= P8488) ITS, Cox1, Cox2
- EPPO-Q-bank: Phytophthora quininea CBS 407.48 ITS, TUB, TEF, COI
- BOLDSYSTEMS: Phytophthora quininea (barcoding COI & ITS)
Position in ITS phylogenetic tree
Colonies and cardinal temperatures
Colony morphology on PDA and V8 with light chrysanthemum pattern, and MEA with chrysanthemum pattern. Minimum growth temperature 9°C, optimum 21–25°C, and maximum 30°C.
Conditions for growth and sporulation
Sporangia and hyphal swellings produced in V-8 agar flooded with 10% soil solution. Chlamydospores produced abundantly on culture media. Oogonia not formed on culture media. Crandall (1947) described the species as homothallic; it appears to be that oogonia observed in this study corresponded to big chlamydospores.
Sporangia nonpapillate; persistent; ovoid, obpyriform, irregular (21–62 L x 11–44 W µm) sometimes with tapered bases; showing nested and extended internal proliferation; originated in simple sympodial sporangiophores. Hyphal swellings globose, subglobose, some produced individually and some in catenulated chains. Chlamydospores globose, subglobose (20–89 µm diam.), produced lateral, terminal, or intercalary, and sometimes in catenulate shape.
Most typical characters
Phytophthora quininea ex-type CPHST BL 54G, duplicate of P8488 (World Phytophthora Collection)
Hosts and distribution
Distribution: Central America (Guatemala), Caribbean Islands (Puerto Rico), South America (Bolivia, Peru)
Disease note: root and collar rot
Host: Cinchona spp. (Rubiaceae)
Retrieved February 01, 2018 from U.S. National Fungus Collections Nomenclature Database.
Host: Cinchona officinalis
USA: This species was listed as a species of concern during the 2009 Phytophthora prioritization project conducted by USDA APHIS PPQ CPHST PERAL (Schwartzburg et al.).
Additional references and links
- Phytophthora DATABASE: Phytophthora quininea
- EPPO-Q-bank: Phytophthora quininea
- SMML USDA-ARS: Phytophthora quininea
- EPPO Global Database: Phytophthora quininea
- CABI Invasive Species Compendium: Phytophthora quininea
- Encyclopedia of Life (EOL): Phytophthora quininea
- Index Fungorum (IF): Phytophthora quininea
- Plantwise Knowledge Bank: Phytophthora quininea
- Google All Phytophthora quininea
- Google Images Phytophthora quininea
- Google Scholar Phytophthora quininea
Fact sheet author
Z. Gloria Abad, Ph.D., USDA-APHIS-PPQ-S&T Beltsville Laboratory, United States of America