Phytophthora quininea

Name and publication

Phytophthora quininea Crand. (1947)

Crandall BS. 1947. A new Phytophthora causing root and collar rot of Cinchona in Peru. Mycologia 39: 218–223.


from Crandall (1947)




The specific name is derived from the Spanish word for the cinchona tree, which was adapted from the original Quechua “quina-quina”. Two of the alkaloids extracted from the cinchona bark, “quinine” and “quinidine”, received their names from the same source.


Type: PERU, isolated from root and collar rot in a plantation tree of cinchona (Cinchonae officinalis) collected by Bowen S. Crandall, in Fundo Sinchono, 60 km. east from Tingo Maria (Pucallpa highway), on the upper headwaters of the Aguaytia River, Department of Loreto during 1947?; holotype isolate No: C-67 of the culture collection of the Department of Plant Pathology and Entomology of the “Estacion Experimental Agricola de Tingo Maria”

Ex-type: C-67 Crandall

Ex-type in other collections

C-67 Crandall = P8488 (WPC), CPHST BL 54G (Abad), P1089 (WOC/WPC), CBS 407.48, ATCC 46733, CMW 31062, 46C4 (Yang)

Molecular identification

Voucher sequences for barcoding genes (ITS rDNA and COI) of the ex-type (see Molecular protocols page)

Phytophthora quininea isolate CPHST BL 54G (= P8488 WPC) = ITS rDNA MG865580, COI MH136972

Sequences for ex-type in other sources
Position in ITS phylogenetic tree

Clade 10a

Genome sequence

Phytophthora quininea strain ex-type BL 54. Accession genome USDA_Pqui_54_1.0 reference, BioProject PRJNA612532, USDA-APHIS-PPQ-S&T (2020)

Morphological identification

Colonies and cardinal temperatures

Colony morphology on PDA and V8 with light chrysanthemum pattern, and MEA with chrysanthemum pattern. Minimum growth temperature 9°C, optimum 21–25°C, and maximum 30°C.

Conditions for growth and sporulation

Sporangia and hyphal swellings produced in V-8 agar flooded with 10% soil solution. Chlamydospores produced abundantly on culture media. Oogonia not formed on culture media. Crandall (1947) described the species as homothallic; it appears to be that oogonia observed in this study corresponded to big chlamydospores.

Asexual phase

Sporangia nonpapillate; persistent; ovoid, obpyriform, irregular (21–62 L x 11–44 W µm) sometimes with tapered bases; showing nested and extended internal proliferation; originated in simple sympodial sporangiophores. Hyphal swellings globose, subglobose, some produced individually and some in catenulated chains. Chlamydospores globose, subglobose (20–89 µm diam.), produced lateral, terminal, or intercalary, and sometimes in catenulate shape.

Sexual phase


Most typical characters

Phytophthora quininea is characterized by the presence of big chlamydospores, the shape of hyphal swellings and sporangia, and absence of gametangia.

Specimen(s) evaluated

Phytophthora quininea ex-type CPHST BL 54G, duplicate of P8488 (World Phytophthora Collection)

Hosts and distribution

Distribution: Central America (Guatemala), Caribbean Islands (Puerto Rico), South America (Bolivia, Peru)
Substrate: roots
Disease note: root and collar rot
Host: Cinchona spp. (Rubiaceae)

Retrieved February 01, 2018 from U.S. National Fungus Collections Nomenclature Database.

Additional info
Host: Cinchona officinalis

Quarantine status

USA: This species was listed as a species of concern during the 2009 Phytophthora prioritization project conducted by USDA APHIS PPQ CPHST PERAL (Schwartzburg et al.).

Additional references and links

Fact sheet author

Z. Gloria Abad, Ph.D., USDA-APHIS-PPQ-S&T Beltsville Laboratory, United States of America