Phytophthora plurivora

Name and publication

Phytophthora plurivora Jung & Burgess (2009)

Jung T and Burgess TI. 2009. Re-evaluation of Phytophthora citricola isolates from multiple woody hosts in Europe and North America reveals a new species, Phytophthora plurivora sp. nov. Persoonia 22: 95–110.

Nomenclature

from Jung and Burgess (2009)

Mycobank

MB512914

Synonym: most isolates identified as Phytophthora citricola prior to 2009 are most likely P. plurivora.

Etymology

refers to the wide host range (pluri Lat = many, -vora Lat = feeding)

Typification

Type: GERMANY, Irschenberg, from root lesion of declining mature Fagus sylvatica, Feb. 2004, T. Jung, holotype MURU 433 (dried culture on V8A, Herbarium of Murdoch University, Western Australia)

Ex-type: CBS 124093 = PLU-A5

Sequences for ex-type in original manuscript: CBS 124093 = ITS rDNA FJ665225, cox1 FJ665236, β-tubulin FJ665247

Ex-type in other collections

CBS 124093 = PLU-A5 = P16840 (WPC), CPHST BL 74 (Abad)

Molecular identification

Voucher sequences for barcoding genes (ITS rDNA and COI) of the ex-type (see Molecular protocols page)

Phytophthora plurivora isolate CPHST BL 74 (= P16840 WPC) = ITS rDNA MG865568, COI MH136959

Sequences for ex-type in other sources
Position in ITS phylogenetic tree

Clade 2c

Morphological identification

Colonies and cardinal temperatures

Colony morphology is stellate on V8A and MEA, and petaloid and fluffy on PDA. Minimum growth temperature 5°C, optimum 25°C, and maximum 32.5°C.

Conditions for growth and sporulation

Sporangia are produced in water cultures (soil extract or river water) and not observed in solid media. Oogonia are formed readily in single-strain culture on CA and V8A after about 7 d.

Asexual phase

Sporangia are semipapillate, persistent, and ovoid, limoniform, or ellipsoid in shape. Sporangia with two or three papillae are common. Sporangia average 47.4 ± 7.7 x 33.5 ± 5.1 µm (overall range 27.5–80.5 x 16.7–69.6 µm). Sporangiophores usually in simple sympodia, but external proliferation can result in lax sympodia. Hyphal swellings absent; Chlamydospores absent.

Sexual phase

Homothallic. Oogonia are globose with smooth walls, average size 28.5 ± 3.3 µm (overall range 15–37.5 µm). Oospores are nearly plerotic, globose to subglobose, average size 25.9 ± 3.1 µm (14–35.8). Antheridia paragynous.

Most typical characters

Phytopthora plurivora is part of a complex that includes P. citricola, P. multivora, P. pini, P. acerina and P. pachypleura. Species in this complex have very similar morphological features.

Specimen(s) evaluated

Germany, Irschenberg, from root lesion of declining mature Fagus sylvatica, February 2004, T. Jung, CBS 124093; Pulling, from lesion on Quercus robur, 1994, CBS 124087; Munich from Fagus sylvatica, 1995, PLU36, Nettetal, from Quercus robur, 1999, PLU77; Canada, Montreal, from Acer saccharum, 1996, CBS 124091; Italy, Cornuda from Quercus robur, 1995, CBS 124089; Romania, Snagov from Carpinus betulus, 2008, CBS 124092; Slovenia, Ljubljana from Quercus petraea, 1995, CBS 124090

ex-type CPHST BL 74 = P16840 (WPC)

Hosts and distribution

Distribution: Africa (South Africa), Europe, North America (USA)
Substrate: collar, roots
Disease note: dieback, canker, root rot, death
Host: numerous hosts in several families

Retrieved February 01, 2018 from U.S. National Fungus Collections Nomenclature Database.

Additional Info:
Distribution: worldwide
Substrate: roots, rhizosphere soil, basal and stem cankers and shoots of some hosts
Disease note: pathogenic toward numerous woody hosts
Hosts: numerous including Abies alba, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Acer platanoides, Acer pseudoplatanus, Acer saccharum, Aesculus hippocastanum, Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus robur, Quercus petraea, Quercus rubra, Rhododendron spp., Syringa vulgaris, Tilia spp., Tsuga canadensis

Quarantine status

no quarantine for Phytophthora plurivora as it is very prevalent and widely distributed around the world

Additional references and links

Fact sheet authors

Treena Burgess, Ph.D., Centre for Phytophthora Science and Management, School of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Murdoch University, Australia; Z. Gloria Abad, Ph.D., USDA-APHIS-PPQ-S&T Beltsville Laboratory, United States of America