Phytophthora pinifolia

Name and publication

Phytophthora pinifolia Durán, Gryzenh. & Wingf. (2008)

Durán A, Gryzenhout M, Slippers B, Ahumada R, Rotella A, Flores F, Wingfield BD, and Wingfield MJ. 2008. Phytophthora pinifolia sp. nov. associated with a serious needle disease of Pinus radiata in Chile. Plant Pathol. 57: 715–727.

Corresponding author:


from Durán et al. (2008)




‘Pinifolia’ refers to the occurrence of the organism on the needles of Pinus radiata.


Type: CHILE isolated from Pinus radiata in Arauco province, Arauco, Llico plantation, July 2007 by M.J. Wingfield; holotype: PREM 59887

Ex-type: CBS 122924, P16100, CMW 26668

Sequences for ex-type in original manuscript: CMW 26668 = ITS = EU725806, CoxII EU725811 (Martin and Tooley FM35 & FM58)

Ex-type in other collections

CBS 122924, P16100 (WOC/WPC) = CPHST BL 49 (Abad), 47H1 (Yang)

Molecular identification

Voucher sequences for barcoding genes (ITS rDNA and COI) of the ex-type (see Molecular protocols page)

Phytophthora pinifolia isolate CPHST BL 49 (= P16100 WPC) = ITS rDNA MG865566, COI MH136958

Sequences for ex-type in other sources
Position in ITS phylogenetic tree

Clade 6b

Genome sequence

Phytophthora pinifolia strain ex-type CBS 122922. Accession genome ASM50022v2 reference, BioProject PRJNA190828, Tree Aggressors Identification using Genomic Approaches (2016), Feau et al 2016

Morphological identification

adapted from Durán et al. (2008)

Colonies and cardinal temperatures

Colony morphology after 7 days of growth on V8 agar, potato dextrose agar, and malt extract agar with no distinctive pattern. Minimum temperature for growth is xx°C, optimum xx°C, and maximum xx°C. 

Conditions for growth and sporulation

Sporangia produced abundantly in soil extract water and rare in culture.

Asexual phase

Sporangia nonpapillate; persistent; globose to ovoid, obpyriform (39–61µm L × 27–45 μm W); ocassionally germinating directly; sporangia produced in unbranched sporangiophores. Hyphal swellings spherically radiating. Chlamydospores absent.

Sexual phase


Additional specimen(s) evaluated

Phytophthora pinifolia, ex-type CPHST BL 49, duplicate of P16100 (World Phytophthora Collection)

Hosts and distribution

Distribution: South America (Chile)
Substrate: needles, shoots
Disease note: downy mildew, needle disease, stem necrosis
Host: Pinus radiata (Pinaceae)

Retrieved February 01, 2018 from U.S. National Fungus Collections Nomenclature Database.

Quarantine status

USA: This species was listed as a species of concern during the 2009 Phytophthora prioritization project conducted by USDA APHIS PPQ CPHST PERAL (Schwartzburg et al.).

EPPO alert list 12.2012: Phytophthora pinifolia; panel review date 03.2012 (previously listed pests are at the bottom of this page)

Additional references and links

Fact sheet author

Z. Gloria Abad, Ph.D., USDA-APHIS-PPQ-S&T Beltsville Laboratory, United States of America