Name and publication
Phytophthora palmivora (Butler) Butler (1919)
Butler EJ. 1918–1919. Report of the imperial mycologist, Science Report Institute Pusa. 82 pp.
≡ Pythium palmivorum E.J. Butler, Memoirs of the Department of Agriculture India 1 (5): 82 (1907) [MB170467]
= Phytophthora faberi Maubl. (1909) [MB232306]
from Butler (1919)
Type: INDIA, Godavery Delta on the East Coast, as Pythium palmivorum Butler 1907
NOTE: According to Butler (1910) the disease was associated with palmyra (Borassus flabelilfer), coconut (Cocos nucifera), areca (Areca catechu), and date (Phoenix sylvestris).
Well-authenticated specimen(s) selected by Gloria Abad:
- Selected specimen #1: CPHST BL 105 = P0633 (WPC) (A2) INDIA from Areca catechu
- Selected specimen #2: CPHST BL 106 = P3738 (WPC) (A1) INDONESIA from Cocos nucifera
- Selected specimen #3: CPHST BL 46 = P0255 (WPC) (A1) COSTA RICA from Theobroma cacao
Selected specimen(s) in other collections
Voucher sequences for barcoding genes (ITS rDNA and COI) of selected specimens (see Molecular protocols page)
Sequences for ex-epitype in other sources
- NCBI: Phytophthora palmivora CPHST BL 105
- NCBI: Phytophthora palmivora CPHST BL 106
- NCBI: Phytophthora palmivora CPHST BL 46
- NCBI: Phytophthora palmivora P0633
- Phytophthora Database: Phytophthora palmivora PD_01222 (= P0633 WPC)
- EPPO-Q-bank: Phytophthora palmivora
- BOLDSYSTEMS: Phytophthora palmivora (barcoding COI & ITS)
Position in phylogenetic tree
Colonies and cardinal temperatures
Colonies on V-8 agar, potato dextrose agar, and malt extract agar with no distinctive pattern. Some colonies with slight chrysanthemum pattern (i.e. isolate CPHST-BL 46). Minimum temperature for growth 9°C, optimum 24–30°C, maximum 33°C.
Conditions for growth and sporulation
Chlamydospores are abundantly produced in agar and water cultures.
Sporangia papillate; caducous with short pedicel; globose, ovoid, obpyriform, ellipsoid, and irregular shapes (27–70 L x 21–46 W µm) originated in simple sympodial sporangiophores. Hyphal swellings globose, subglobose, elongate, and irregular shapes. Chlamydospores globose or subglobose (16–50 L x 16–45 W µm), terminal or intercalary.
Heterothallic. Oogonia smooth-walled (28–42 µm diam.); antheridia spherical, short cylindrical or ellipsoid (12–21 L x 13–17 W µm), sometimes with spine or digitate projections; oospores plerotic to slightly aplerotic (27–40 µm diam.).
Most typical characters
Phytophthora palmivora is characterized by the shapes of sporangia with short pedicels and the sympodial sporangiophores. The shape of chlamydospores and hyphal swellings are also useful for identification in combination with other characters of the asexual phase.
Phytophthora palmivora CPHST BL 105 (A2) SE1 = P0633 (World Phytophthora Collection)
Phytophthora palmivora CPHST BL 106 (A1) SE2 = P3738 (World Phytophthora Collection)
Phytophthora palmivora CPHST BL 46 SE3 = P0255 (A1) (World Phytophthora Collection)
Hosts and distribution
Substrate: leaves, buds, stems, fruits, roots
Disease note: black pod and canker of cacao; patch canker, black stripe, and leaf fall of rubber; bud rot of coconut; fruit and stem rot of pawpaw; root rot and damping-off of seedlings (Stamps 1985)
Host: various plant families
Retrieved February 01, 2018 from U.S. National Fungus Collections Nomenclature Database.
Additional references and links
- Phytophthora DATABASE: Phytophthora palmivora
- EPPO-Q-bank: Phytophthora palmivora
- SMML USDA-ARS: Phytophthora palmivora
- EPPO Global Database: Phytophthora palmivora
- Forest Phytophthoras of the world: Phytophthora palmivora
- CABI Invasive Species Compendium: Phytophthora palmivora
- Encyclopedia of Life (EOL): Phytophthora palmivora
- Index Fungorum (IF): Phytophthora palmivora
- Plantwise Knowledge Bank: Phytophthora palmivora
- Google All Phytophthora palmivora
- Google Images Phytophthora palmivora
- Google Scholar Phytophthora palmivora
Fact sheet author
Z. Gloria Abad, Ph.D., USDA-APHIS-PPQ-S&T Beltsville Laboratory, United States of America