Name and publication
Phytophthora morindae Z.G. Abad & Nelson (2010)
Nelson S and Abad ZG. 2010. Phytophthora morindae, a new species causing black flag on noni (Morinda citrifolia L) in Hawaii. Mycologia 102: 122–134.
Corresponding author: email@example.com
from Nelson and Abad (2010)
refers to the host Morinda citrifolia L.
Type: UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, from Hawaii, Island of Hawaii, from Morinda citrifolia var. citrifolia (Indian mulberry, noni), Rubiaceae (Coffee family) infected with black flag disease of noni in the Puna District (Noni Farm Road), 10 Oct 2005, collector Scot C. Nelson P238; G. Abad isolate Ph697, BPI 878721 (dried culture on baby carrot agar)
Ex-type: CBS 121982 (P238, Ph697)
Ex-type in other collections
Voucher sequences for barcoding genes (ITS rDNA and COI) of the ex-type (see Molecular protocols page)
Sequences for ex-type in other sources
- NCBI: Phytophthora morindae CPHST BL 49G
- NCBI: Phytophthora morindae Ph697, P238
- Phytophthora Database: Phytophthora morindae
- EPPO-Q-bank: Phytophthora morindae CBS 121982
- BOLDSYSTEMS: Phytophthora morindae (barcoding COI & ITS)
Position in ITS phylogenetic tree
Colonies and cardinal temperatures
Colony morphology on potato dextrose agar and malt extract agar with chrysanthemum to rosette pattern, colonies on V-8 agar with fine chrysanthemum pattern. Minimum for growth 6°C, optimum 21–25°C, maximum 27°C.
Conditions for growth and sporulation
Sporangia papillate, occasionally bipapillate; caducous with medium to long pedicels (8–66 µm); ellipsoid (sometimes with tapered base), obpyriform, limoniform, or asymmetrical (bilaterally symmetrical or mouse-shaped with one rounded and one flatter side) (30–54 L x 19–24 W µm); originated in umbellate sporangiophores. Hyphal swellings absent. Chlamydospores absent.
Homothallic. Oogonia smooth-walled and frequently with tapered base (22–40 µm diam.); antheridia amphigynous (7–14 L x 6–12 W µm); oospores plerotic (21–39 µm diam.) with wall thickness 2.4–3.6 µm, immature oospores showing the presence of thick walls and mature oospores showing thinner walls; large ooplasts in mature oospores frequently present (13–20 µm diam.).
Most typical characters
Hosts and distribution
Distribution: USA: HI
Substrate: leaves, petioles, pedicel, fruit
Disease note: black flag disease
Host: Morinda citrifolia var. citrifolia (Rubiaceae)
Retrieved January 31, 2018 from U.S. National Fungus Collections Nomenclature Database.
Phytophtora morindae has been reported only on Morinda citrifolia var. citrifola in Hawaii, where it is capable of causing blight on aboveground plant parts (root and stem tissue have not shown symptoms or the ability to recover the pathogen). Severely infected plants have a characteristic black flag consisting of diseased leaves. In the early stages of disease the leaves may have black streaks alongside the veins caused by rapid colonization by the pathogen. Fruit infection often occurs through the pedicel and can result in shriveled fruit mummies remaining attached to the stem.
Additional references and links
- Phytophthora DATABASE: Phytophthora morindae
- EPPO-Q-bank: Phytophthora morindae
- SMML USDA-ARS: Phytophthora morindae
- EPPO Global Database: Not available
- CABI Invasive Species Compendium: Phytophthora morindae
- Encyclopedia of Life (EOL): Phytophthora morindae
- Index Fungorum (IF): Phytophthora morindae
- Plantwise Knowledge Bank: Phytophthora morindae
- Google All Phytophthora morindae
- Google Images Phytophthora morindae
- Google Scholar Phytophthora morindae
Fact sheet author
Z. Gloria Abad, Ph.D., USDA-APHIS-PPQ-S&T Beltsville Laboratory, United States of America