Phytophthora litchii (to be updated 2022)

Name and publication

Phytophthora litchii (C.C. Chen ex W.H. Ko, H.S. Chang, H.J. Su, C.C. Chen & L.S. Leu) Voglmayr, Göker, Riethm. & Oberw., comb. nov. (2007)

Göker M, Voglmayr H, Riethmüller A, and Oberwinkler F. 2007. How do obligate parasites evolve? A multi-gene phylogenetic analysis of downy mildews. Fungal Genet. Biol. 44: 105–122.

Editorial comment in Index Fungorum:
See also Phytophthora litchii (C.C. Chen ex W.H. Ko, H.S. Chang, H.J. Su, C.C. Chen & L.S. Leu) P.K. Chi, X.P. Pang & R. Liu, [Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Chinese Phytopathological Society]: 72–73 (1981), nom. inval., Art. 33.4, basionym not indicated and bibliographic reference omitted (original publication not seen).

Basionym: Peronophythora litchii C.C. Chen ex W.H. Ko, H.S. Chang, H.J. Su, C.C. Chen & L.S. Leu 1978 (Index Fungorum)

Nomenclature

from Göker et al. (2007)

Mycobank

MB532416

Synonymy

≡ Peronophythora litchii C.C. Chen ex W.H. Ko, H.S. Chang, H.J. Su, C.C. Chen & L.S. Leu, Mycologia 70: 381 (1978) [MB344384]
≡ Phytophthora litchii (C.C. Chen ex W.H. Ko, H.S. Chang, H.J. Su, C.C. Chen & L.S. Leu) P.K. Chi, X.P. Pang & R. Liu (1981) [MB532800]

Typification

Neotype: TAIWAN, from diseased litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruits in Taiwan, TAI 4800 (dried dead culture) deposited at Herbarium of Department of Botany, National Taiwan University, Taiepei, Taiwan (from Ko et al. 1978)

Ex-neotype: ATCC 34595 (from Ko et al. 1978)

NOTE: TAI 4800 and ATCC 34595 were deposited as the type and ex-type of Peronophythora litchii (Ko et al. 1978). It is not clear if this isolate exists at ATCC. 

Selected specimen(s) by Gloria Abad:
CPHST BL 48G = P15218 (WPC)
CPHST BL 145 = P19950 (WPC) 

Selected specimen(s) in other collections

CPHST BL 48G (Abad) = P15218 (WPC) = ATCC 34595 = Pero-1, CBS 100.81, AR-178, MG 33-3

NOTE: CBS 100.81 used in Goker et al. (2007) (C. W Kao, Nan-tou - Taiwan, CBS H-15618)

Molecular identification

Voucher sequences for barcoding genes (ITS rDNA and COI) of selected specimens (see Molecular protocols page)

Phytophthora litchii isolate CPHST BL 48G (= P15218 WPC) = ITS rDNA MG865525, COI MH136920
Phytophthora litchii isolate CPHST BL 145 (= P19950 WPC) = ITS rDNA MG865524, COI MH136919

Sequences for selected specimen in other sources
Position in ITS phylogenetic tree

Clade 4

Morphological identification

Colonies and cardinal temperatures

Colony morphology after 7 days of growth on V8 agar, potato-dextrose agar and malt extract with no distinct pattern. Minimum temperature for growth is 12°C, optimum 27–28°C, and maximum 30°C.

Conditions for growth and sporulation

Sporangia readily produced in V-8 agar flooded with 10% soil solution. Oospores rarely produced in culture media, except in hemp seed agar with fatty acids. Phytophthora litchii can easily grow in culture media like many species of Phytophthora.

Asexual phase

Sporangia papillate; caducous with short pedicel; globose, ovoid, ellipsoid (20–33 L x 16–22 W µm), produced in typical compound sympodial erected sporangiophores that resemble those produced in downy mildews. Hyphal swellings with finger-like shape. Chlamydospores absent.

Sexual phase

Sterile/homothallic. Oogonia smooth-walled, globose to ovoid (25–33 L x 22–28 W µm); antheridia amphigynous; oospores (18–21 µm diam.).

Most typical characters

Phytophthora litchii is characterized by the production of typical compound sympodial erected sporangiophores that resemble those produced in downy mildews.

Specimen(s) evaluated

Phytophthora litchii CPHST BL 48G, duplicate of P15218 (World Phytophthora Collection) (selected specimen)

CPHST BL 145, duplicate of P19950 (World Phytophthora Collection)

Hosts and distribution

Distribution: Asia, Europe (Netherlands)
Disease note: blossom blight
Host: Litchi chinensis (Sapindaceae)

Retrieved January 31, 2018 from U.S. National Fungus Collections Nomenclature Database.

Additional info
Substrate: fruits

Additional references and links

Fact sheet author

Z. Gloria Abad, Ph.D., USDA-APHIS-PPQ-S&T Beltsville Laboratory, United States of America