Name and publication
Phytophthora citricola Sawada (1927)
Sawada K. 1927. Descriptive catalogue of the Formosan fungi III. Report of the Department of Agriculture, Government Research Institute of Formosa 27: 1–62.
from Sawada (1927)
Type: TAIWAN, Formosa from fruit of Citrus sinensis, collected in 1927 IMI 21173
Ex-type: CBS 221.88
NOTE: Translation from the original manuscript in Japanese into English was provided by Dr. Motoaki Tojo at Osaka Prefecture of Japan (G. Abad 4.7.2018).
Ex-type in other collections
NOTE: Caution should be taken when identifying Phytophthora citricola as there are numerous misidentifications of this species in NCBI. It is recommended that sequences from specimens of the ex-type be used to correctly identify to species level.
Voucher sequences for barcoding genes (ITS rDNA and COI) of the ex-type (see Molecular protocols page)
Sequences for ex-type in other sources
- NCBI: Phytophthora citricola CPHST BL 34
- NCBI: Phytophthora citricola CBS 221.88
- NCBI: Phytophthora citricola P0716
- NCBI: Phytophthora citricola 33H8
- Phytophthora DATABASE: Phytophthora citricola PD_02007 (P0716 WPC)
- EPPO-Q-bank: Phytophthora citricola CBS 221.88
- BOLDSYSTEMS: Phytophthora citricola CBS2218 = OOMYA059-07, OOMYA 498-08, P0716 = PHYTO009-10 (barcoding COI & ITS)
Position in ITS phylogenetic tree
Colonies and cardinal temperatures
Colonies on V8-A, PDA, and MEA with chrysanthemum growth pattern, on PDA chrysanthemum with sparse aerial mycelium. Minimum growth temperature 3°C, optimum 24°C, maximum 30°C.
Conditions for growth and sporulation
Sporangia semipapillate and persistent; ovoid, globose, ellipsoid, obpyriform, and distorted shapes (28–78 x 21–47 µm) and bipapillate originated in single or sympodially branched sporangiophores. Hyphal swellings absent. Chlamydospores absent.
Homothallic. Oogonia smooth-walled, round base, occasionally tapered base (21–44 µm diam.); antheridia paragynous, rarely amphyginous (12–13 x 8–10 µm diam) attached near the oogonial stalks; oospores predominantly plerotic (18–38 µm diam.) with thick oospore wall.
Most typical characters
Phytophthora citricola CPHST BL 34, duplicate of P0716 (World Oomycetes/Phytophthora Collection)
Hosts and distribution
Most isolates identified as P. citricola prior to 2009 are most likely to correspond to Phytophthora plurivora or P. pini. It is possible that the correct distribution for P. citricola is in Argentina, Australia, Canada, Japan, China, South Africa, Spain, Taiwan, and the USA (CA) (based on available sequences in NCBI). These sequences are associated with citrus and hybrid verbena (G. Abad, 9.12.18).
Substrate: roots, fruits, stems, bark of trunks
Disease note: brown rot of oranges, black root of hops, root rot and cane die-back of raspberry, die-back of rhododendron, and basal rot of tomato seedlings (Waterhouse & Waterston 1966)
Hosts: 75 genera in 38 families
Retrieved January 29, 2018 from U.S. National Fungus Collections Nomenclature Database.
Phytophthora citricola is listed in the U.S. Regulated Plant Pest Table (last modified Nov. 15, 2017).
Additional references and links
Scott PM, Burgess TI, Barber PA, Shearer BL, Stukely MJC, Hardy GE, and Jung T. 2009. Phytophthora multivora sp. nov., a new species recovered from declining Eucalyptus, Banksia, Agonis and other plant species in Western Australia. Persoonia 22: 1-13.
Jung T and Burgess TI. 2009. Re-evaluation of Phytophthora citricola isolates from multiple woody hosts in Europe and North America reveals a new species, Phytophthora plurivora sp. nov. Persoonia 22: 95-100.
- Phytophthora DATABASE: Phytophthora citricola
- EPPO-Q-bank: Phytophthora citricola
- SMML USDA-ARS: Phytophthora citricola
- EPPO Global Database: Phytophthora citricola
- CABI Invasive Species Compendium: Phytophthora citricola
- Encyclopedia of Life (EOL): Phytophthora citricola
- Index Fungorum (IF): Phytophthora citricola
- Plantwise Knowledge Bank: Phytophthora citricola
- Google All Phytophthora citricola
- Google Images Phytophthora citricola
- Google Scholar Phytophthora citricola
Fact sheet author
Z. Gloria Abad, Ph.D., USDA-APHIS-PPQ-S&T Beltsville Laboratory, United States of America