Phytophthora cinnamomi

Name and publication

Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands (1922)

Rands RD. 1922. Streepkanker van Kaneel, veroorzaakt door Phytophthora cinnamomi n. sp. Meded. Inst. voor Plantenziekt 54: 1–54.





from Rands (1922)

Type: INDONESIA, West Sumatra, from Indonesian cinnamon in cortice of Cinnamomum burmannii IMI 22938 deposited in Herb IMI ex-type collections by Randes, R.D. 1928-121

Note: IMI 22938 states that a culture is available from CABI Collections. However, this isolate is not available at CABI.

Isotype: INDONESIA, (West Sumatra) Matoer near Padang Indonesian cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmannii) Herbarium: CBS H-7638 collected by C. Hartley, isolated by R.D. Rands, No. 13, deposited by C. Hartley Jan. 1922 to CBS

Ex-isotype: CBS 144.22

NOTE: according to Mycologia: duplicates of the holotype collection are isotypes when deposited elsewhere or are otherwise separate from the holotype.

Ex-isotype in other collections

CBS 144.22 = P2110 (WPC) (A2), ATCC 46671, Pc 110 (Zentmyer), CINN4, CPHST BL 12 (Abad), 61J1 (Yang)

Selected specimen (A1) (G. Abad): P cinnamomi  P2121 (WPC) Persea americana, Madagascar; other codes: ATCC 46672, Pc 121 (Zentmyer), CPHST BL 137 (Abad)

Molecular identification

Voucher sequences for barcoding genes (ITS rDNA and COI) of the ex-type (see Molecular protocols page)

Phytophthora cinnamomi isolate CPHST BL 12 (A2) (= P2110 WPC) = ITS rDNA MG865473, COI MH136869

Sequences of selected specimens

Phytophthora cinnamomi isolate CPHST BL 137 (A1) (= P2121 WPC) = ITS rDNA MG865474, COI MH136870

Sequences for ex-type in other sources
Position in ITS phylogenetic tree

Clade 7a

Genome sequence

Phytophthora cinnamomi strain ex-type CBS 144.22. Accession genome ASM2028349v1, BioProject PRJNA68241, University of Liverpool (2021)

Morphological identification

Colonies and cardinal temperatures

Colonies on V8-A with no distinctive colony pattern, on PDA and MEA with rosette (petaloid) pattern. Minimum temperature for growth 9°C, optimum 27°C, and maximum 30°C.

Asexual phase

Sporangia nonpapillate; persistent with internal proliferation, sometimes nested; ovoid, ellipsoid, obpyriform or rarely irregularly shaped (14–83 x 13-43 μm); produced in unbranched or lax simple sympodial sporangiophores. Hyphal swellings abundant; globose to sub-globose, coralloid, clustered, or aggregated. Chlamydospores abundant; globose, terminal, intercalary, rarely lateral (16–43 μm).

Sexual phase

Heterothallic. Oogonia smooth-walled; spherical (23–41 μm); antheridia amphigynous spherical to broadly ellipsoid; oospores plerotic with a moderately thick wall (22–36 μm).

Most typical characters

Phytophthora cinnamomi is characterized by the presence of typical botryose hyphal swellings and thick-walled chlamydospores which are common and useful for the morphological diagnostics.

Specimen(s) evaluated

Phytophthora cinnamomi CPHST BL 12 (A2) duplicate of P2110 (World Phytophthora Collection)

Phytophthora cinnamomi CPHST BL 137 (A1) duplicate of P2121 (World Phytophthora Collection)

Phytophthora cinnamomi P6940 (WPC) from avocado, USA

Hosts and distribution

Distribution: primarily Southern Hemisphere
Substrate: roots, stems, branches, heartwood
Disease note: root rot, heart rot, wilt; causes ink disease of chestnut in conjunction with Phytophthora cambivora; a serious pathogen of hardwood forests and various crop species
Hosts: 266 genera in 90 families, commonly hardwood trees

Retrieved January 29, 2018 from U.S. National Fungus Collections Nomenclature Database.

Additional references and links

Zentmyer GA, et al. 1976. Variability in growth of Phytophthora cinnamomi in relation to temperature. Phytopathology 66: 982-986. Cites ATCC 46671.

Fact sheet author

Z. Gloria Abad, Ph.D., USDA-APHIS-PPQ-S&T Beltsville Laboratory, United States of America