Phytophthora litoralis

Name and publication

Phytophthora litoralis Jung, Stukely & Burgess (2011)

Jung T, Stukely MJC, Hardy GE St, White MD, Paap T, Dunstan WA, and Burgess TI. 2011. Multiple new Phytophthora species from ITS Clade 6 associated with natural ecosystems in Australia: evolutionary and ecological implications. Persoonia 13: 13–39.


from Jung et al (2011)




referred to as P. sp. 11 by Burgess et al. (2009)


refers to the frequent association of this species with coastal and riparian vegetation and the littoral zone of water bodies


Type: AUSTRALIA, Western Australia, Ravensthorpe, from rhizosphere soil of dying Banksia sp., 2008, VHS, holotype MURU 463 (dried culture on V8A, Herbarium of Murdoch University, Western Australia)

Ex-type: CBS 127953 = VHS 20763

Sequences for ex-type in original manuscript: CBS 127953 = ITS rDNA = HQ012948, HSP90 = HQ012911, cox1 = HQ012866

Ex-type in other collections

CBS 127953 = VHS 20763 P19591 (WOC/WPC) = CPHST BL 70 (Abad), 55B9 (Hong)

Molecular identification

Voucher sequences for barcoding genes (ITS rDNA and COI) of the ex-type (see Molecular protocols page)

Phytophthora litoralis isolate CPHST BL 70 (= P19591 WPC) = ITS rDNA MG865526, COI MH136921

Sequences for ex-type in other sources
Position in ITS phylogenetic tree

Clade 6b

Morphological identification

Colonies and cardinal temperatures

Colony morphology is uniform on V8A, stellate with sparse aerial mycelium on CA; petaloid, appressed to submerged colonies on MEA; and irregular and dense-felty on PDA. Minimum growth temperature 10°C, optimum 30°C and maximum 35°C.

Conditions for growth and sporulation

Sporangia are produced in water cultures (soil extract or river water) and not observed in solid media. Oogonia are not observed in single culture or when paired with tester strains.

Asexual phase

Sporangia are nonpapillate, persistent, ovoid to elongated ovoid or limoniform with average dimensions of 43.6 ± 7.7 × 29.4 ± 5.4 μm (overall range 27.8–76.9 × 16.0–40.4 μm). Sporangiophores in simple sympodia and internal proliferation, both nested and extended, occurs in chains. External proliferation leading to lax sympodia is also observed. Hyphal swellings are globose, angular or irregular-elongated and often catenulate. Chlamydospores globose, 34.3 ± 5.3 μm.

Sexual phase

Sterile in culture.

Most typical characters

Phytophthora litoralis is in a species cluster with Phytophthora amnicola, Phytophthora fluvialis, Phytophthora moyootj, and Phytophthora thermophila, all recovered from waterways in Western Australia. They all have similar morphological features.

Specimen(s) evaluated

Australia, Western Australia, Ravensthorpe, from rhizosphere soil of dying Banksia sp., 2008, VHS, CBS 127953 = VHS 20763; Borden, from stream baiting, 2008, MUCC 763; MUCC 763; Hopetoun from a dying Banksia sp. 2007, VHS 17085; Wilga, from dying Xanthorrhoea preissii, 2008, VHS 19173

CPHST BL 70 = P9591 (WPC)

Hosts and distribution

Distribution: Australia
Substrate: water, soil associated with dying plants
Disease note: decline
Host: Banksia sp. (Proteaceae), Xanthorrhoea preissii (Asphodelaceae), Rubus anglocandicans (Rosaceae)

Retrieved January 31, 2018 from U.S. National Fungus Collections Nomenclature Database.

Additional info
Distribution: Western Australia
Substrate: roots, collars, and rhizosphere soil
Disease note: no pathogenicity trials have been conducted
Hosts: occasionally isolated in association with other Phytophthora species in rhizosphaere soil collected in wetter areas

Additional references and links

Burgess TI, Webster JL, Ciampini JA, White DW, Hardy GESJ, Stukely MJC. 2009. Re-evaluation of Phytophthora species isolated during 30 years of vegetation health surveys in Western Australia using molecular techniques. Plant Disease 93, 215–223.

Hüberli D, Hardy GESJ, White D, Williams N, Burgess TI. 2013. Fishing for Phytophthora from Western Australia's waterways: A distribution and diversity survey. Australasian Plant Pathology 42: 251–260.

Fact sheet authors

Treena Burgess, Ph.D., Centre for Phytophthora Science and Management, School of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Murdoch University, Australia; Z. Gloria Abad, Ph.D., USDA-APHIS-PPQ-S&T Beltsville Laboratory, United States of America