live in bee nests; feeding habits and effect on bees unknown

Name and classification

Schulzea Zachvatkin, 1941

Superorder Acariformes » Order Sarcoptiformes » Suborder Oribatida » Infraorder Desmonomata » Hyporder Astigmata » Family Acaridae » Genus Schulzea

Type species
Schulzea pamirensis Zachvatkin, 1941

Common synonyms
In literature has been confused with Halictacarus Mahunka, 1975 (Delfinado and Baker, 1976; Putatunda and Kapil, 1995). See the section "Similar genera" for diagnostic character states of both genera.


Phoretic deutonymph: Tarsal setae aa I present, long (Fig. 1). Setae ba I absent, ba II present (Fig. 1). Hysterosomal shield smooth (Fig. 1). Setae ve shorter than vi and smooth (Fig. 1). “Saucer” at the end of tarsal setae e I-II present (Fig. 1). Genu I with two solenidia (σ' and σ'') (Fig. 1). External conoidal setae (ps2) of attachment organ anterior to median suckers (ad1+2) (Fig. 2); ps2 and ps1 accompanied by long, well-developed endosclerites (internal sclerites situated under cuticle) (Fig. 2). Solenidion σ III present. Setae nG III present (Fig. 2). Coxal setae 1a, 3a, 4a conoidal (Fig. 2). Claws I-IV subequal (Fig. 2). Long seta on tarsus IV (d IV) middorsal (Fig. 2).

Species identification

The two known species can be identified using Zachvatkin, 1941.

Similar genera

Schulzea can be separated from Halictacarus by: 3a represented by conoids (filiform in Halictacarus); ve shorter than vi and smooth (long, as long as vi, and barbed in Halictacarus); hysterosomal shield smooth (with distinct pattern of short longitudinal grooves in Halictacarus); conoidal setae ps2 of attachment organ distinctly anterior to median sucker ad1+2 (slightly anterior in Halictacarus); claws IV subequal with claws I-III (distinctly smaller than claws I-III in Halictacarus), leg setae smooth (many leg setae barbed in Halictacarus); long seta on tarsus IV middorsal (terminal in Halictacarus).

Bee hosts

Known from various families of bees: Hylaeus (Prosopis) (Colletidae); Andrena (Hoplandrena) (Andrenidae); and Megachile (Megachilidae).

Host association level


associated exclusively with bees or their close relative, wasps; cannot live without these hosts


some life stages are associated with bees, while others are not

Facultative or opportunistic

can complete entire life cycle without bees or their close relative, wasps


Host associations, feeding, and dispersal

  • All stages probably live in nests of wood- and ground-nesting bees and crabronine wasps. Feeding preferences are unknown.
  • Phoretic deutonymphs disperse on adult hosts.


Also recorded from wood-nesting wasps Stigmus and Pemphredon (Crabronidae), and a dung beetle Geotrupes sp. (Geotrupidae). Biology is unknown.