This tool is part of the Citrus Resource

Citrus Pests

 

Citrus gall midge

 

Scientific name

 

Prodiplosis longifila (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

Similar species

 

other midges in the genus Prodiplosis including Prodiplosis myricae, Prodiplosis vaccinii, and Prodiplosis citrulli

Distribution

 

United States: Florida.

Worldwide: the Caribbean, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and South America.

Diagnostic characteristics

 
Adults
  • 1.5 mm (0.06 in.).
  • Blackish-yellow body.
  • Gnat-like fly.
  • Two wings 1.5 - 1.7 mm (0.06 - 0.07 in.).
  • Antennae: female - 1.22 mm (0.05 in.), male - 1.62 mm (0.06 in.).
Pupae
  • Light yellowish initially, blackish-yellow prior to emergence.
  • 0.85 - 1mm (0.033 - 0.04 in.) in length.
  • Cocoons made of whitish spun material often with sand grains incorporated.
Larvae
  • Three larval instars. LI>Mature larvae are 1.9 mm (0.071 in.) in length.
  • Initially transparent, gradually turn white, yellowish-orange prior to pupation.
  • One-segmented, conical antennae.
Eggs
  • 0.27mm (0.010 in.).
  • Usually deposited on the stamens and styles.
  • Clear.

Hosts

 
Citrus hosts
  • lemon, Citrus limon
  • Mexican (or Key) lime, Citrus aurantifolia
  • pummelo, Citrus maxima
  • sweet orange, Citrus sinensis
  • Volker's lemon, Citrus volkameriana
Non-citrus hosts
  • alfalfa, Medicago sativa
  • bean, Phaseolus spp.
  • castor bean, Ricinus communis
  • Chenopodium ambrosiodes
  • pepper, Capsicum chinense
  • potato, Solanum tuberosum
  • tomato, Solanum lycopersicum
  • wild cotton, Gossypium thurberi

Host damage

 
Flowers
  • Larvae are frequently found on the surface of the flower ovary, stamens, and petals.
  • Can cause necrotic patches on the plant tissue.
  • Ovaries may be destroyed.
  • Premature flower drop (abscission).

Biology

 

Adult gall midges do not feed and only live for 1 - 2 days. It is the larvae that damage plants. After feeding for 8 - 12 days, the larvae drop to the ground and burrow approximately 1.5 cm (0.6 in) into the soil to pupate.

References

 

Gagné, R.J. 1986. Revision of Prodiplosis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) with description of three new species. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 79: 235-245.

Mamaev, B.M., N.P. Krivosheina, J.H. Wieffering, and J.C. Roskam, (Ed.). 1993. The larvae of the gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae): comparative morphology, biology, keys. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Peña J.E., R.M. Baranowski, and R.T. McMillan Jr. 1987. Prodiplosis longifilia (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a new pest of citrus in Florida. Fla. Entomol. 70: 527-529.

Peña, J.E., R.J. Gagné, and R. Duncan. 1989. Biology and characterization of Prodiplosis longifila (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on lime in Florida. Fla. Entomol. 72: 444-450. (http://www.jstor.org/stable/3495182?cookieSet=1).

Peña, J.E. 1994. Update on status of pests of tropical fruit crops in South Florida. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 107: 340-342. (http://www.fshs.org/Proceedings/Password%20Protected/1994%20Vol.%20107/340-342%20(PENA).pdf).

Peña, J.E., and F.W. Mead. 2007. Featured creatures fact sheet: Citrus gall midge, Prodiplosis longifila Gagné (Insecta: Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Publication EENY-035. University of Florida. (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/IN/IN16200.pdf).

Authors

 

Weeks, J.A., K.W. Martin, A.C. Hodges, and N.C. Leppla

 

Citrus Pests
Content last updated June, 2012
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