Hackeriapis

Taxonomy

Family: Megachilidae
Subfamily: Megachilinae
Tribe: Megachilini
Genus: Hackeriapis Cockerell, 1922
Common name: none

Overview

Hackeriapis are bees with black integument on their head and thorax and often reddish integument on some terga. They have white, gray, black, red, or orange hairs throughout their bodies, although red and orange hairs are common on their abdomens (King 1994; Michener 2007). They are a morphologically diverse genus and range in body length from 5–18 mm (Michener 2007). These bees were formerly considered a subgenus of Megachile, but was raised to genus status by Gonzalez et al. (2019).

Diagnostic characteristics

(modified from King 1994; Michener 2007; Gonzalez 2008; Gonzalez et al. 2019)

  • T2T3 often have strong, deep, transverse postgradular grooves.
  • Tarsal claws with strong basal teeth.
  • Female mandible is three- to five-toothed with shiny mandibular ridges.
  • Female without apical sternal hairbands beneath the scopa.
  • Female S1 without a medial projection.
  • Male mandible is two- or three-toothed.
  • Male S4 is usually retracted; if visible, it is less sclerotized, less hairy, and less punctate than the other sterna.
  • Male forelegs and mid-tarsus are simple.
  • Male T2T4 with impunctate, hyaline, apical margin.
  • Male T6 apical margin with four teeth.
  • Male gonocoxites are shorter than the penis valve.

May be confused with

Hackeriapis may be confused with Rozenapis as they have a similar appearance and share the characteristic of reddish terminal terga (Gonzalez et al. 2019). However, Hackeriapis females lack the large conspicuous spine on S1 that is found on Rozenapis females. Further, male Hackeriapis have a basal tooth on their tarsal claws which is absent in Rozenapis (Gonzalez et al. 2019).

Host associations

Hackeriapis have been observed visiting flowers of the plant families Apocynaceae, Goodeniaceae, Fabaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Liliaceae, Myoporaceae, Myrtaceae, Papilionaceae, and Violaceae (King 1994; Donovan et al. 2013).

Nesting behavior

Hackeriapis have been observed using a number of pre-existing cavities for nesting, including abandoned nests of potter wasps, Eucalyptus seed pods, and man-made objects such as outdoor table umbrellas or folded newspapers (Houston 2018). These bees use resin, masticated plant matter, and downy plant fibers to construct their nests (Houston 2018). One species, H. aurifrons, has been recorded building their cell partitions out of pollen provisions (Houston 2018). Some species are known to nest in aggregations, where several females build nests in the same crevice (Houston 2018).

Diversity

Hackeriapis consists of 77 species (Michener 2007; Gonzalez et al. 2019); none are known to occur in the U.S. or Canada.

Known invasives

There are no known invasives.

Distribution

Hackeriapis occur in New Guinea, New Caledonia, and Australia, including on the island of Tasmania (Michener 2007; Donovan et al. 2013). In New Guinea, they are found within the savanna (Michener 2007).

Distribution
​Distribution map generated by Discover Life -- click on map for details, credits, and terms of use.

<p><em>Hackeriapis aurifrons</em> female face, photo: Colleen Meidt</p>
Hackeriapis aurifrons female face, photo: Colleen Meidt
<p><em>Hackeriapis aurifrons</em> female lateral habitus, photo: Colleen Meidt</p>
Hackeriapis aurifrons female lateral habitus, photo: Colleen Meidt
<p><em>Hackeriapis aurifrons</em> female abdomen, photo: Colleen Meidt</p>
Hackeriapis aurifrons female abdomen, photo: Colleen Meidt
<p><em>Hackeriapis aff. variabilis </em>male face, photo: Colleen Meidt</p>
Hackeriapis aff. variabilis male face, photo: Colleen Meidt
<p><em>Hackeriapis aff. variabilis </em>male lateral habitus, photo: Colleen Meidt</p>
Hackeriapis aff. variabilis male lateral habitus, photo: Colleen Meidt
<p><em>Hackeriapis aff. variabilis </em>male abdomen, photo: Colleen Meidt</p>
Hackeriapis aff. variabilis male abdomen, photo: Colleen Meidt
<p><em>Hackeriapis sp. </em>male face, photo: Colleen Meidt</p>
Hackeriapis sp. male face, photo: Colleen Meidt
<p><em>Hackeriapis sp. </em>male lateral habitus, photo: Colleen Meidt</p>
Hackeriapis sp. male lateral habitus, photo: Colleen Meidt
<p><em>Hackeriapis sp. </em>male abdomen, photo: Colleen Meidt</p>
Hackeriapis sp. male abdomen, photo: Colleen Meidt
<p><em>Hackeriapis lucidiventris </em>female face, photo: Colleen Meidt</p>
Hackeriapis lucidiventris female face, photo: Colleen Meidt
<p><em>Hackeriapis lucidiventris </em>female lateral habitus, photo: Colleen Meidt</p>
Hackeriapis lucidiventris female lateral habitus, photo: Colleen Meidt
<p><em>Hackeriapis lucidiventris </em>female abdomen, photo: Colleen Meidt</p>
Hackeriapis lucidiventris female abdomen, photo: Colleen Meidt
<p><em>Hackeriapis</em><em> </em>sp. male face, photo: Colleen Meidt</p>
Hackeriapis sp. male face, photo: Colleen Meidt
<p><em>Hackeriapis aurifrons</em> male terga, photo: Colleen Meidt</p>
Hackeriapis aurifrons male terga, photo: Colleen Meidt