Carinula

Taxonomy

Family: Megachilidae
Subfamily: Megachilinae
Tribe: Megachilini
Genus: Carinula Michener, 1994
Common name: none

Overview

Carinula are brightly colored, elongate bees that range in length from 7–11 mm (Michener 2007; Eardley 2012). They were previously synonymized within Megachile (Callomegachile) (Michener 2007). Carinula was established as a genus by Gonzalez et al. 2019.

Diagnostic characteristics

(modified from Michener 2007)

May be confused with

Carinula may be confused with bees within Callomegachile, as they were both previously combined under Megachile (Callomegachile), and they share a number of features including the shape of T6 in males and mandible features in females (Michener 2007; Gonzalez 2008). Male Carinula can be differentiated from Callomegachile by the lack of a spine on the front coxa. Female Carinula have a complete longitudinal carina medially on the clypeus and shinier mandibular ridges than Callomegachile (Michener 2007).

Host associations

Carinula are known to visit flowers of plants in the families Acanthaceae, Asteraceae, Hypericaceae, Lamiaceae, Malvaceae, Muntingiaceae, Papilionaceae, Rubiaceae, Rhizophoraceae, Solanaceae, and Sterculiaceae (Gikungu 2006; Ascher et al. 2016a; Venceslas et al. 2020).

Nesting behavior

Carinula are dauber bees, which are bees that use mud and sometimes resin to construct their nests (Michener 2007; Eardley 2012).

Diversity

Carinula consists of eight species (Ascher and Pickering 2020); none are known to occur in the U.S. or Canada.

Known invasives

Carinula torrida was introduced from Africa to the Caribbean and is now found in Cuba, Hispaniola, the Dominican Republic, and Montserrat (Genaro 1996; Raw 2007; Genaro 2008). These bees were likely introduced during the slave trade between 1511 and 1867 (Genaro 2008).

Distribution

Carinula are known to occur in Africa, Asia, and in limited parts of North America, specifically the Caribbean. In Africa, they are found in Ghana, Liberia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, South Africa, and Kenya (Genaro 1996; Gikungu 2006; Raw 2007, Eardley 2012). They are also found in Southeast Asia, and have been recorded in India, Malaysia, and Singapore (Ascher et al. 2016a). One species, Carinula torrida, was introduced into the Caribbean and is now found in Cuba, Hispaniola, the Dominican Republic, and Montserrat (Genaro 1996; Raw 2007).

Distribution
​Distribution map generated by Discover Life -- click on map for details, credits, and terms of use.

<p><em>Carinula fervida </em>female face, photo: Chelsey Ritner</p>
Carinula fervida female face, photo: Chelsey Ritner
<p><em>Carinula fervida </em>female lateral habitus, photo: Chelsey Ritner</p>
Carinula fervida female lateral habitus, photo: Chelsey Ritner
<p><em>Carinula fervida </em>female abdomen, photo: Chelsey Ritner</p>
Carinula fervida female abdomen, photo: Chelsey Ritner
<p><em>Carinula torrida </em>female face, photo: Shaun Heller</p>
Carinula torrida female face, photo: Shaun Heller
<p><em>Carinula torrida </em>female lateral habitus, photo: Shaun Heller</p>
Carinula torrida female lateral habitus, photo: Shaun Heller
<p><em>Carinula torrida </em>female abdomen, photo: Shaun Heller</p>
Carinula torrida female abdomen, photo: Shaun Heller
<p><em>Carinula torrida </em>male face, photo: Shaun Heller</p>
Carinula torrida male face, photo: Shaun Heller
<p><em>Carinula torrida </em>male lateral habitus, photo: Shaun Heller</p>
Carinula torrida male lateral habitus, photo: Shaun Heller
<p><em>Carinula torrida </em>male abdomen, photo: Shaun Heller</p>
Carinula torrida male abdomen, photo: Shaun Heller
<p><em>Carinula fervida</em> female face, photo: Joshua Hengel</p>
Carinula fervida female face, photo: Joshua Hengel
<p><em>Carinula torrida</em> female face, photo: Joshua Hengel</p>
Carinula torrida female face, photo: Joshua Hengel