Ceratina (Simioceratina)

Taxonomy

Family: Apidae
Subfamily: Xylocopinae
Tribe: Ceratinini
Genus: Ceratina Latreille, 1802
Subgenus: Simioceratina Daly and Moure, 1988
Common name: small carpenter bees

Overview

Ceratina (Simioceratina) are strongly punctate bees with black integument, sometimes with pale markings that are limited to the head, pronotal lobes, and legs. Their body length varies between 5–8 mm (Michener 2007).

Diagnostic characteristics

(modified from Daly and Moure 1988; Eardley and Daly 2007)

May be confused with

Ceratina (Simioceratina) resemble species of Ceratina (Ctenoceratina) because both have apical rows of coarse setae on metasomal terga and sterna. Ceratina (Simioceratina) differ from the latter subgenus by their strongly convex and elevated scutellum, the posterior part of which is steeply declivous, and leads into the nearly vertical metanotum and propodeum (Eardley and Daly 2007).

Host associations

Sinébou et al. (2016) reported that around 60% of Ceratina (Simioceratina) visiting the tree Vitex doniana (Verbenaceae) carried monospecific pollen loads of this plant. There are unconfirmed reports of this subgenus visiting Sida acuta (Malvaceae), introduced Lamium sp. (Lamiaceae), Rhododendron sp. (Ericaceae), and Antigonon leptopus (Polygonaceae).

Nesting behavior

Ceratina (Simioceratina) species have been found nesting in the dry stems and branches of species in a number of plant families including Asphodelaceae, Bignoniaceae, Fabaceae, Malvaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Verbenaceae (Daly and Moure 1988). Ceratina (Simioceratina) moerenhouti has been found nesting in aggregation in grass roof thatches made of Hyparrhenia dissoluta (Poaceae) (Daly and Moure 1988).

Diversity

Ceratina (Simioceratina) includes three species (Daly 1988).

Known invasives

There are no known invasives.

Distribution

Ceratina (Simioceratina) are found throughout sub-Saharan Africa (Michener 2007).

Distribution
​Distribution map generated by Discover Life -- click on map for details, credits, and terms of use.

<p><em>Ceratina tanganyicensis </em>female face, photo: Joshua Hengel</p>
Ceratina tanganyicensis female face, photo: Joshua Hengel
<p><em>Ceratina tanganyicensis </em>female lateral habitus, photo: Joshua Hengel</p>
Ceratina tanganyicensis female lateral habitus, photo: Joshua Hengel
<p><em>Ceratina tanganyicensis </em>female dorsal habitus, photo: Joshua Hengel</p>
Ceratina tanganyicensis female dorsal habitus, photo: Joshua Hengel
<p><em>Ceratina tanganyicensis </em>male face, photo: Joshua Hengel</p>
Ceratina tanganyicensis male face, photo: Joshua Hengel
<p><em>Ceratina tanganyicensis </em>male lateral habitus, photo: Joshua Hengel</p>
Ceratina tanganyicensis male lateral habitus, photo: Joshua Hengel
<p><em>Ceratina tanganyicensis </em>male dorsal habitus, photo: Joshua Hengel</p>
Ceratina tanganyicensis male dorsal habitus, photo: Joshua Hengel
<p><em>Ceratina tanganyicensis</em>, male. photo: Chelsey Ritner</p>
Ceratina tanganyicensis, male. photo: Chelsey Ritner
<p><em>Ceratina tanganyicensis</em>, female propodeum. photo: Chelsey Ritner</p>
Ceratina tanganyicensis, female propodeum. photo: Chelsey Ritner
<p><em>Ceratina tanganyicensis</em>, female propodeum. photo: Colleen Meidt</p>
Ceratina tanganyicensis, female propodeum. photo: Colleen Meidt
<p><em>Ceratina tanganyicensis</em>, female abdomen. photo: Chelsey Ritner</p>
Ceratina tanganyicensis, female abdomen. photo: Chelsey Ritner
<p><em>Ceratina tanganyicensis</em>, female. photo: Chelsey Ritner</p>
Ceratina tanganyicensis, female. photo: Chelsey Ritner