Ceratina (Euceratina)

Taxonomy

Family: Apidae
Subfamily: Xylocopinae
Tribe: Ceratinini
Genus: Ceratina Latreille, 1802
Subgenus: Euceratina Hirashima, Moure, and Daly, 1971
Common name: small carpenter bees

Overview

Ceratina (Euceratina) consists of rather weakly metallic and strongly punctate species with pale markings that, if present, are limited to the face, pronotal lobe, and legs. Their body length varies between 6–14 mm (Michener 2007).

Diagnostic characteristics

(modified from Hirashima 1971a, Daly 1983, Michener 2007)

  • Head and thorax strongly punctate.
  • Preoccipital carina absent or weak.
  • Propodeum with a weak to distinct transverse carina at each side posteriorly.
  • T5 without a gradulus.
  • T6 with a median longitudinal keel.
  • Male T7 strongly extending posteriorly, simple or bidentate at apex.
  • Male gonostylus, which is articulated to the gonocoxite, is several times as long as wide, and hairy.

May be confused with

Species of Ceratina (Euceratina) can be confused with species of the subgenera Ceratina (Ceratinidia), Ceratina (Ceratina), and Ceratina (Neoceratina) but they can be separated by the lack of gradulus on T5 and the longitudinal keel on T6 in Euceratina. The male gonostylus is also distinctive, as described above, but this character requires dissection.

Host associations

The adventive species, Ceratina (Euceratina) dallatorreana has been observed visiting the flowers of Centaurea (Asteraceae), Convolvulus (Convolvulaceae), and Melilotus (Fabaceae) (Daly 1966).

Nesting behavior

Ceratina (Euceratina) species have been reported nesting in dry stems of Adoxaceae (Sambucus), Asteraceae (Artemisia), Brassicaceae (​Brassica), Polygonaceae (EriogonumRumex), Rosaceae (Rubus), and Simaroubaceae (Ailianthus(Daly 1966; Daly 1983)

Diversity

Ceratina (Euceratina) includes 38 described species (Hirashima 1971a; Terzo and Rasmont 2011; Ascher and Pickering 2020).

Known invasives

The species Ceratina dallatorreana Friese, native to the Mediterranean region, was first reported in California in 1949 where it is now established (Daly 1966). This species reproduces by thelytokous parthenogenesis; only females have been found in the U.S. (Daly 1966).

Distribution

Ceratina (Euceratina) occur from Britain east to southern Russia and Pakistan, and south to Somalia (Michener 2007). One species has been introduced to the U.S., Ceratina dallatorreana (Daly 1966).

Distribution
​Distribution map generated by Discover Life -- click on map for details, credits, and terms of use.

<p><em>Ceratina cyanea </em>female face, photo: Joshua Hengel</p>
Ceratina cyanea female face, photo: Joshua Hengel
<p><em>Ceratina cyanea </em>female lateral habitus, photo: Joshua Hengel</p>
Ceratina cyanea female lateral habitus, photo: Joshua Hengel
<p><em>Ceratina cucurbitina </em>female dorsal habitus, photo: Joshua Hengel</p>
Ceratina cucurbitina female dorsal habitus, photo: Joshua Hengel
<p><em>Ceratina cyanea </em>male face, photo: Joshua Hengel</p>
Ceratina cyanea male face, photo: Joshua Hengel
<p><em>Ceratina cyanea </em>male lateral habitus, photo: Joshua Hengel</p>
Ceratina cyanea male lateral habitus, photo: Joshua Hengel
<p><em>Ceratina callosa </em>female dorsal habitus, photo: Joshua Hengel</p>
Ceratina callosa female dorsal habitus, photo: Joshua Hengel
<p><em>Ceratina chalcites</em>, female. photo: Colleen Meidt</p>
Ceratina chalcites, female. photo: Colleen Meidt