Ceratina (Copoceratina)

Taxonomy

Family: Apidae
Subfamily: Xylocopinae
Tribe: Ceratinini
Genus: Ceratina Latreille, 1802
Subgenus: Copoceratina Terzo and Pauly, 2001
Common name: small carpenter bees

Overview

Ceratina (Copoceratina) are small bees with black integument, sometimes with some faint greenish or bronze metallic reflections on the head and thorax, as well as white markings on their head, pronotal lobes, and legs (Pauly et al. 2001). Their forewing length varies between 3–3.5 mm (Pauly et al. 2001).

Diagnostic characteristics

(modified from Pauly et al. 2001; Michener 2007)

May be confused with

Ceratina (Copoceratina) is not likely to resemble other Ceratina subgenera and can be distinguished by the unique transverse carina on the supraclypeal area of both sexes in combination with the fine punctures on the integument and the ventral tooth or lobe on the ventral side of the male’s hind trochanter (Pauly et al. 2001).

Host associations

Ceratina (Copoceratina) have been reported foraging on flowers of Acanthaceae (Asystasia), Campanulaceae (Lobelia), Convolvulaceae (Ipomoea), and Portulacaceae (Portulacca)(Pauly et al. 2001).

Nesting behavior

Ceratina (Copoceratina) madecassa nests have been found in the stems of Scaevola taccada (Goodeniaceae). These nests showed the typical features associated with Ceratina nests, including walls formed of a double layer of clippings, a 7.5 mm space between plugs, 3 cm between occupied cells, and a 1.2 cm entrance to the galleries (Pauly et al. 2001).

Diversity

Ceratina (Copoceratina) currently includes only two species; C. minuta Friese and C. madecassa (Michener 2007).

Known invasives

There are no known invasives.

Distribution

Ceratina (Copoceratina) is restricted to Africa: C. minuta is found from Kenya to South Africa, and C. madecassa has been found only on Madagascar and the archipelago of the Seychelles (Michener 2007).

Distribution
​Distribution map generated by Discover Life -- click on map for details, credits, and terms of use.

<p><em>Ceratina </em>(<em>Copoceratina</em>) sp. male face, photo: Brooke Bagot</p>
Ceratina (Copoceratina) sp. male face, photo: Brooke Bagot
<p><em>Ceratina </em>(<em>Copoceratina</em>​) sp. male lateral habitus, photo: Brooke Bagot</p>
Ceratina (Copoceratina​) sp. male lateral habitus, photo: Brooke Bagot
<p><em>Ceratina </em>(<em>Copoceratina</em>) sp. male abdomen, photo: Brooke Bagot</p>
Ceratina (Copoceratina) sp. male abdomen, photo: Brooke Bagot
<p><em>Ceratina </em>(<em>Copoceratina</em>) sp. male face, photo: Brooke Bagot</p>
Ceratina (Copoceratina) sp. male face, photo: Brooke Bagot
<p><em>Ceratina </em>(<em>Copoceratina</em>) sp. male lateral habitus, photo: Brooke Bagot</p>
Ceratina (Copoceratina) sp. male lateral habitus, photo: Brooke Bagot
<p><em>Ceratina </em>(<em>Copoceratina</em>) sp. male abdomen, photo: Brooke Bagot</p>
Ceratina (Copoceratina) sp. male abdomen, photo: Brooke Bagot
<p><em>Ceratina sp.</em> face. photo: Chelsey Ritner</p>
Ceratina sp. face. photo: Chelsey Ritner
<p><em>Ceratina sp.</em> teeth. photo: Chelsey Ritner</p>
Ceratina sp. teeth. photo: Chelsey Ritner
<p><em>Ceratina sp</em>. photo: Chelsey Ritner</p>
Ceratina sp. photo: Chelsey Ritner
<p><em>Ceratina sp.</em> photo: Chelsey Ritner</p>
Ceratina sp. photo: Chelsey Ritner
<p><em>Ceratina sp.</em> male abdomen. photo: Brooke Bagot</p>
Ceratina sp. male abdomen. photo: Brooke Bagot