Paradioxys

Taxonomy

Family: Megachilidae
Subfamily: Megachilinae
Tribe: Dioxyini
Genus: Paradioxys Mocsary, 1894
Subgenera: none
Common name: none

Overview

Paradioxys have black integument on their head and thorax and black to red abdomens with apical bands of hair on their terga. They range from 7.5–9 mm in body length (Michener 2007). Female Paradioxys are cleptoparasitic and therefore lack scopal hairs (Michener 2007). As a member of the Dioxyini tribe, they also have a greatly reduced stinger (Michener 2007).

Diversity

Paradioxys contains 2 species (Michener 2007); none are known to occur in the U.S. or Canada.

Diagnostic characteristics

(modified from Michener 2007)

  • Metanotum with a median spine.
  • Scutellum with lateral spines and strong carina between them.
  • Axilla not produced to spines.
  • Female mandible bidentate.
  • Female T6 rounded and two or three times as long as broad (Fig 7).
  • Female T6 hairless, shiny, and smooth (Fig 7).
  • Female S6 needle-like and extends well beyond the apex T6 (Fig 8).

May be confused with

Paradioxys may be confused with Dioxys due to similar body shape, but can be differentiated by a different apex of the female abdomen, as well as by the combination of diagnostic characteristics above (Michener 2007)

Known invasives

There are no known invasives.

Host associations

Paradioxys are cleptoparasitic bees, and females do not gather pollen from flowers since the larvae develop parasitically on their host’s pollen provisions (Michener 2007). They will, however, visit a wide variety of flowers for nectar. Paradioxys are known to parasitize bees in the genus Megachile (Hurd 1958).

Nesting behavior

Paradioxys are known cleptoparasites of Megachile (Hurd 1958). Host selection boundaries, however, are not well understood (Michener 2007).

Distribution

Paradioxys occurs in Austria, Hungary, Israel, and Iran (Michener 2007).

​Distribution map generated by Discover Life -- click on map for details, credits, and terms of use.

<p><em>Paradioxys pannonica</em> female face, photo: C. Ritner</p>
Paradioxys pannonica female face, photo: C. Ritner
<p><em>Paradioxys pannonica</em> female lateral habitus, photo: C. Ritner</p>
Paradioxys pannonica female lateral habitus, photo: C. Ritner
<p><em>Paradioxys pannonica</em> female abdomen, photo: C. Ritner</p>
Paradioxys pannonica female abdomen, photo: C. Ritner
<p><em>Paradioxys ruyanensis</em> female face, photo: C. Ritner © Division of Entomology, University of Kansas Biodiversity Institute</p>
Paradioxys ruyanensis female face, photo: C. Ritner © Division of Entomology, University of Kansas Biodiversity Institute
<p><em>Paradioxys ruyanensis </em>female lateral habitus, photo: C. Ritner © Division of Entomology, University of Kansas Biodiversity Institute</p>
Paradioxys ruyanensis female lateral habitus, photo: C. Ritner © Division of Entomology, University of Kansas Biodiversity Institute
<p><em>Paradioxys ruyanensis </em>female abdomen, photo: C. Ritner © Division of Entomology, University of Kansas Biodiversity Institute</p>
Paradioxys ruyanensis female abdomen, photo: C. Ritner © Division of Entomology, University of Kansas Biodiversity Institute
<p><em>Paradioxys pannonica</em> female T6 hairless and 2-3 times as long as broad, photo: C. Ritner</p>
Paradioxys pannonica female T6 hairless and 2-3 times as long as broad, photo: C. Ritner
<p><em>Paradioxys ruyanensis</em> female S6, photo: C. Ritner © Division of Entomology, University of Kansas Biodiversity Institute</p>
Paradioxys ruyanensis female S6, photo: C. Ritner © Division of Entomology, University of Kansas Biodiversity Institute