Taxonomic history

Tomicus perforans Wollaston, 1857: 96.

Xyleborus perforans (Wollaston): Eichhoff, 1878b: 403.

Synonyms

Bostrichus testaceus Walker, 1859: 260. Browne 1955: 355.

Xyleborus duponti Montrouzier, 1861: 265. Hagedorn 1910b: 108.

Anodius tuberculatus Motschulsky, 1863: 511Wood 1969: 117.

Anodius denticulus Motschulsky, 1863: 512. Wood 1969: 117.

Xyleborus kraatzii Eichhoff, 1868b: 152. Schedl 1959: 503.

Xyleborus kraatzii philippinensis Eichhoff, 1878b: 374. Schedl 1959: 503.

Xyleborus immaturus Blackburn, 1885: 193Beeson 1929: 240.

Xylopertha hirsuta Lea, 1894: 321. Schedl 1936b: 529, 1959: 503.

Xyleborus whitteni Beeson, 1935b: 113. Beaver 1991: 95.

Xyleborus apertus Schedl, 1939a: 355Bright and Skidmore 1997: 4, 154.

Xyleborus criticus Schedl, 1950b: 899. Wood 1989: 177.

Xyleborus shionomisakiensis Murayama, 1951: 3. Smith et al. 2018b: 398.

Xyleborus cylindrus Schedl, 1951a: 94. Bright and Skidmore 1997: 4, 155.

Xyleborus minimus Schedl, 1955a: 305. Bright and Skidmore 1997: 4, 161.

Diagnosis

2.3−2.6 mm long (mean = 2.46 mm; n = 5); 2.67−2.89 times as long as wide. This species is distinguished by the protibia obliquely triangular, broadest at distal third; elytral declivity smooth, shining (specimen must be dry); declivital interstriae 1, 3 armed with 2–3 pairs of moderate tubercles; interstriae 2 sparsely granulate at declivital summit; and elytra unicolorus.

This species is very similar to X. cognatus which has often been treated as a synonym of X. perforans, and X. volvulus. It can be distinguished from X. cognatus by the smaller size (vs 2.8–3.1 mm), generally stouter form (vs 2.8–3.1 times as long as wide), smaller interstrial tubercles and unicolorus elytra. This species is almost identical to X. volvulus and can be distinguished the stouter form (vs 3.13 times as long as wide) and interstriae 2 granules only present at declivity summit (vs entire length).

May be confused with

Xyleborus affinis, X. cognatus, X. ferrugineus, X. festivus, X. pfeilii, and X. volvulus

Distribution

throughout tropical parts of the Afrotropical, Australian and Oriental regions; recorded in the study region from Bangladesh, Cambodia, China (Guangxi, Hong Kong*, Shanxi, Yunnan), India (Andaman Is, Assam, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Nicobar Is, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal), Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam

Host plants

strongly polyphagous (e.g. Browne 1961a, Schedl 1963a, Gray and Wylie 1974, Ohno 1990)

Remarks

The biology has been described by Beeson (1961), Browne (1961a), Schedl (1963a), and Kalshoven (1964). The species sometimes attacks weakened or injured trees, and can be a minor pest (Browne 1968a), but its attacks are usually secondary. Due to its abundance, the species can be important in the downgrade of recently felled timber.

DNA data

Sequences available for COI and CAD.

COI: HM064132MN620045MN620046MN620047MN620048MN620049

CAD: HM064311MN620314MN620315MN620316MN620317