Taxonomic history

Bostrichus ferrugineus Fabricius, 1801: 388.

Xyleborus ferrugineus (Fabricius): Ferrari, 1867: 23.

Synonyms

Tomicus trypanaeoides Wollaston, 1867: 114. Browne 1955: 355; Schedl, 1960a: 9.

Xyleborus fuscatus Eichhoff, 1868a: 400. Schedl 1960a: 8.

Xyleborus confusus Eichhoff, 1868a: 401. Schedl 1957: 16.

Xyleborus retusicollis Zimmermann, 1868: 146. Bright 1968: 1312.

Xyleborus amplicollis Eichhoff, 1869: 280. Schedl 1960a: 8.

Xyleborus insularis Sharp, 1885: 193. Schedl 1941: 116.

Xyleborus tanganus Hagedorn, 1910a: 8. Schedl 1960a: 8.

Xyleborus nyssae Hopkins, 1915a: 66. Schedl 1960a: 9.

Xyleborus soltaui Hopkins, 1915a: 66. Bright 1968: 1312.

Xyleborus hopkinsi Beeson, 1929: 246. Schedl 1960a: 8.

Xyleborus argentinensis Schedl, 1931: 345. Schedl 1960a: 8.

Xyleborus rufopiceus Eggers, 1932: 303. Wood 1989: 176.

Xyleborus schedli Eggers, 1934a: 83Schedl 1960a: 9.

Xyleborus nesianus Beeson, 1940: 200. Beaver 1991: 95.

Xyleborus notatus Eggers, 1941a: 107. Schedl 1960a: 8.

Xyleborus subitus Schedl, 1949: 280. Schedl 1960a: 9.

Diagnosis

2.5−3.1 mm long (mean = 2.84 mm; n = 5); 2.78−3.11 times as long as wide. This species is distinguished by the protibia obliquely triangular, broadest at distal third; elytral declivity smooth, shining (specimen must be dry); elytral declivity with a pair of prominent tubercles on interstriae 3; declivity distinctly sulcate between suture and interstriae 3; interstriae 1 armed only by a denticle at declivital summit; and interstriae 2 unarmed.

May be confused with

Xyleborus affinis, X. cognatus, X. festivus, X. perforans, X. pfeilii, and X. volvulus

Distribution

Probably native to tropical America (Wood 1977, Gohli et al. 2016), but now circumtropical. Not common in the Oriental region, but more widely present than indicated by Wood and Bright (1992). Recorded in the study region only from India (West Bengal) and Taiwan.

Host plants

strongly polyphagous, with several hundred hosts recorded (Schedl 1963a, Ohno 1990, Ohno et al. 1988, 1989)

Remarks

This species is rare in Asia. Measurements were taken from Atkinson et al. (2013). We were unable to locate any Asian specimens. Measurements were of New World specimens from Guyana, Panama, Peru, and the United States (Florida and Michigan).

The biology of the species is described by Schedl (1963a) and Entwhistle (1972). Norris (1976) summarizes studies by his group on the role of the associated ambrosia fungi in the nutrition and development of the beetle, the requirement of a fungal-produced steroid for pupation, and of associated bacteria for oocyte maturation. The species has some economic importance as a pest of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) (Malvaceae) as a vector of cocoa wilt (Entwhistle 1972). Wood (2007) considers it one of the most destructive species of harvested timber in South America.

DNA data

Sequences available for COI from Gohli et al. (2016) including: KP941291.1KP941288.1