Taxonomic history

Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff, 1868b: 401.

Synonyms

Xyleborus affinis fuscobrunneus Eichhoff, 1878b: 372. Schedl 1959: 504.

Xyleborus affinis mascarensis Eichhoff, 1878b: 372. Wood 1960: 71.

Xyleborus affinis parvus Eichhoff, 1878b: 372. Wood 1960: 71.

Xyleborus sacchari Hopkins, 1915a: 64. Wood 1982: 830.

Xyleborus subaffinis Eggers, 1933a: 36. Schedl 1959: 504.

Xyleborus societatis Beeson, 1935a: 120. Beaver 1991: 94.

Xyleborus proximus Eggers, 1943: 66. Schedl 1963a: 331.

Diagnosis

2.2−2.5 mm long (mean = 2.32 mm; n = 5); 2.56−3.14 times as long as wide. This species is distinguished by the protibia obliquely triangular, broadest at distal third; elytral declivity shagreened, dull (specimen must be dry); small size; declivital interstriae 1, 3 armed with sparse uniformly sized small granules, interstriae 2 sparsely granulate at declivital summit; and declivity not appearing sulcate.

May be confused with

Xyleborus cognatus, X. ferrugineus, X. festivus, X. perforans, X. pfeilii, and X. volvulus

Distribution

Probably native to tropical America (Wood 1977, Gohli et al. 2016), but now circumtropical. Less common in the Oriental region than in Africa and the Americas, but sometimes locally abundant. Recorded in the study region from India (Meghalaya, Tamil Nadu, no state recorded), Cambodia, China (Yunnan), Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam.

Host plants

strongly polyphagous (Schedl 1963a, as Xyleborus mascarensis Eichhoff, Wood 1982)

Remarks

The biology of the species is reviewed by Schedl (1963a). Schneider (1987) notes that more than one generation may inhabit the same gallery system, and describes the oral mycangia. Seasonal changes in numbers caught in traps have been related to temperature and rainfall in Africa (Beaver and Löyttyniemi 1991, Madoffe and Bakke 1995) and in Central America (Rangel et al. 2012). Flight height preference in Amazonia is described by (Abreu et al. 2001). Laboratory rearing techniques, and the occurrence of delayed dispersal and alloparental care are discussed by Biedermann et al. (2009, 2011). Although its attacks are secondary, the species can be of economic importance due to its abundance and wide host range.

DNA data

Sequences available for COI and CAD.

COI: GU808696MN620036MN620037MN620038

CAD: GU808621MN620302MN620303MN620304MN620305MN620306MN620307MN620308