Taxonomic history

Xyleborus perbrevis Schedl, 1951a: 59

Euwallacea perbrevis (Schedl): Wood, 1989: 173 (as a synonym of E. fornicatus).


Xyleborus molestulus Wood, 1975b: 400. Smith et al. 2020b: 248.


2.3–2.5 mm long (mean = 2.44 mm; n = 5); 2.46–2.55 times as long as wide. This species is distinguished by the pronotum basic (type 2) when viewed dorsally, anterior margin appearing rounded; elytral declivity rounded; declivital face convex; protibia outer margin rounded with 7–10 socketed denticles, denticles small, their sockets small; declivital surface shining; interstriae bearing sparse small granules, posterolateral margin of declivity costate. This species is nearly identical to E. malloti and E. n. sp. 5 and can be separated by the elytral bases rounded and posterolateral declivital costa carinate and never granulate.

This species is part of the Euwallacea fornicatus species complex, and the most reliable method to ensure accurate identification of these species is through generation of COI barcoding sequences (Gomez et al. 2018b, Smith et al. 2019). Gomez et al. (2018b; figure 1) provide morphological characters for separating the species based on measurements of elytral length (lateral view; diagonally measured from the elytral base to the apex) and pronotal length (lateral view; on a diagonal from pronotal apex to pronotal base). Species can be diagnosed using the combination of measurements given in Smith et al. 2019:

species total length
length/width ratio
elytral length
(lateral; diagonal)
pronotal length
(lateral; diagonal)
elytral width
pronotal width (dorsal) protibial
E. fornicatior 2.20–2.37 2.15−2.35 1.40–1.46 1.02–1.06 0.48–0.52 1.00–1.06 6−7
E. fornicatus 2.60−2.70 2.25−2.36 1.44–1.72 1.02–1.16 0.48–0.62 1.00–1.14 8–9
E. kuroshio 2.40−2.80 2.17−2.40 1.50–1.82 1.08–1.16 0.52–0.56 1.06–1.16 8−11
E. perbrevis 2.30−2.50 2.46−2.55 1.42–1.68 1.04–1.16 0.48–0.56 1.02–1.14 7−10


May be confused with

This species is part of the Euwallacea fornicatus species complex along with E. fornicatior, E. fornicatus, E. kuroshio from which it is difficult to distinguish. The species is also similar to Coptodryas inornata, E. andamanensis, E. geminus, E. malloti, E. neptis, E. semirudis, E. testudinatus, E. velatus, and Xylosandrus formosae.


This species is confirmed from American Samoa, Australia, Brunei, China (Hainan), Fiji, Indonesia (Java), Japa (Okinawa), Malaysia (Java, Sabah), Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Réunion, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Timor Leste, Vietnam, and introduced in the United States (Florida and Hawaii) (Gomez et al. 2018a), Costa Rica, and Panama (Kirkendall and Ødegaard 2007, reported as E. fornicatus) (Smith et al. 2019).

Host plants

The species is known from Avicennia (Acanthaceae), Mangifera (Anacardiaceae), Cyathocalyx, Xylopia (Annonaceae), Bursera (Burseraceae), Terminalia (Combretaceae), Aleurites (Euphorbiaceae), Acacia, Erythrina (Fabaceae), Theobroma and Trichospermum (Malvaceae), Artocarpus (Moraceae), Myristica (Myristicaceae), Citrus (Rutaceae), Casearia (Salicaceae), and Litchi (Sapindaceae) (Smith et al. in review). It has been recorded from the following hosts under different names: Protium (Burseraceae), Cedrela (Meliaceae), Brosimum (Moraceae) (Kirkendall and Ødegaard 2007 as E. fornicatus), Camellia sinensis (Theaceae) (O'Donnell et al. 2015 as Euwallacea sp. #4), Annona (Annonaceae), Bursera (Burseraceae), Albizia, Lysiloma (Fabaceae) (Owens et al. 2018 as Euwallacea nr. fornicatus) (Smith et al. 2019).


Euwallacea perbrevis is commonly known as the tea shot hole borer (TSHB) which was previously thought to be a synonym of E. fornicatus (Smith et al. 2019).

Various aspects of the biology of the species are described by Kalshoven (1958), Browne (1961b), Sivapalan (1975, 1977), Walgama (2012), Cooperband et al. (2016) and others as E. fornicatus. The species is well known as a pest of tea plantations in Sri Lanka and southern India, and it and its sibling species have become pests of fruit and other plantation trees (e.g. Mendel et al. 2012, Eskalen et al. 2013, Cooperband et al. 2016, Smith et al. 2019)

DNA data

Sequences are available for CAD.

CAD: HM064264

COI sequences can be found in Smith et al. 2019 including KU726995, KU726996, and KU726995.