Taxonomic history

Xyleborus compactus Eichhoff, 1876a: 201.

Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff): Nunberg, 1959: 434.

Synonyms

Xyleborus morstatti Hagedorn, 1912a: 37. Murayama and Kalshoven, 1962: 247.

Diagnosis

1.5−1.9 mm long (mean = 1.68 mm; n = 5); 2.0−2.5 times as long as wide. This species can be distinguished by its small size; elytral disc gradually curving toward declivity, appearing rounded; elytral disc flat; posterolateral margins of elytra carinate to interstriae 7; declivital face with six punctate striae; striae setose, setae semi-recumbent hairs and equal in length to the width of an interstria; interstriae granulate, uniseriate with erect hair-like setae longer than the width of two interstriae; pronotum as long as wide, from dorsal view rounded (type 1) and lateral view basic (type 0), summit at midpoint, basal half smooth, shining, sparsely minutely punctate; and sparse mycangial tuft on the pronotal base.

May be confused with

Xylosandrus adherescens, X. derupteterminatus, X. mesuae, and X. morigerus

Distribution

Circumtropical. Within the study region, recorded from China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hong Kong, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang), India (Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu), 'Indochina', Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Established in the Neotropics, USA, and Europe (Wood 2007, Garonna et al. 2012, Gomez et al. 2018a).

Host plants

strongly polyphagous (Dole and Cognato 2010)

Remarks

The biology has been reviewed by Browne (1961a), Brader (1964), Le Pelley (1968), Entwhistle (1972), and Beaver (1988), amongst others. This is a species of considerable economic importance because it can attack and breed in healthy shoots and twigs. The main economic host is coffee (Coffea spp.) (Rubiaceae), but it is also a pest of tea (Camellia thea) (Theaceae) in Japan, of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) (Sterculiaceae) and avocado (Persea americana) (Lauraceae) in Southeast Asia and elsewhere, and may kill seedlings and saplings of shade and forest trees (e.g. Browne 1968a, Le Pelley 1968, Entwhistle 1972).

DNA data

Sequences available for COI and CAD.

COI: GU808706; GU808707MN620067MN620068MN620069

CAD: GU808628; GU808629