Taxonomy

Xylosandrus Reitter, 1913: 83.

Synonyms

Apoxyleborus Wood, 1980: 90. Wood, 1984: 229.

Diagnosis

Xylosandrus species are small to moderately sized, 1.3−3.9 mm long, and stout, 1.79−2.6 times as long as wide. Xylosandrus can be distinguished by the procoxae widely separated (narrowly separated in X. formosae); pronotum with a median mycangial tuft (absent in X. formosae); antennal club type 1, obliquely truncate with segment one covering the posterior face; eyes moderately to deeply emarginate; scutellum visible, flat, flush with elytra; lateral margin of the pronotum obliquely costate; protibia distinctly triangular or slender with fewer than 6 large socketed denticles; and elytral declivity with 0, 5, or 6 striae.

May be confused with

Amasa, Anisandrus, Cnestus, Diuncus, and Hadrodemius. Xylosandrus is closely related to Anisandrus, Cnestus, and Hadrodemius, all of which possess a mesonotal mycangium and the associated dense tuft of hairs at the scutellar area and pronotal base (Gohli et al. 2017, Johnson et al. 2018).

Distribution

globally distributed throughout temperate and tropical forests

Gallery system

The species typically breed in small diameter stems. The gallery system consists of a radial gallery leading to an irregular chamber in the centre of the stem with longitudinal branches extending up and down the stem.