Taxonomy

Cyclorhipidion Hagedorn, 1912b: 355.

Synonyms

Terminalinus Hopkins, 1915a: 10. Wood and Bright, 1992: 697.

Kelantanius Nunberg, 1961: 621. Wood, 1986: 83.

Notoxyleborus Schedl, 1934b: 84. Smith et al., 2020: 39.

Diagnosis

Body length from 1.70−5.50 mm long, very stout to very elongate (2.19−3.40) times as long as wide with elytral apex entire. Cylcorhipidion is a morphologically variable genus, however the species can largely be distinguished by their distinctive body appearance with most of body covered with dense pubescence and very abundant minute punctures; elytral disc with confused interstrial punctures; pronotum and elytra rounded, typically with no conspicuous edges or carinasantennal club type 3 (types 4 and 5 rare); visible scutellum, contiguous procoxae and lack of mycangial tufts. Several species have obliquely truncate elytral declivities.

Fraudatrix and Truncaudum are very similar to small Cyclorhipidion species and can be distinguished by the type 2 antennal club. Tricosa is also similar to small Cyclorhipidion and can be distinguished by the distinctly triangular protibiae.

May be confused with

Anisandrus, Dryoxylon, Fraudatrix, Tricosa, and Truncaudum

Distribution

Occurring in temperate and tropical forests worldwide with the exception of South America. Several species have been introduced to the United States (Hoebeke et al. 2018).

Gallery system

Usually consists of an unbranched entrance tunnel leading to a single narrow brood chamber, which may be quite large, in the longitudinal plane (Browne 1961b, Hulcr and Cognato 2013). However, in C. perpilosellum, the gallery system has a few branches in the horizontal plane with small, irregular brood chambers (Browne 1961b).

Remarks

Some species of Cyclorhipidion have a strong host preference for trees of the family Fagaceae. These species occur especially in areas where this family is abundant in the forests (Beaver et al. 2014).